CONLANG Translation Relay 16

Kash (Ring B)

Roger Mills Sat, Nov 15, 2008 at 6:23 PM

Kash Text

andapravacan haniyukale lulusni yarundata ambepuçti ri angañaye rakop niniya, kuwacu yarumek traleleñ.

ende rucunuka valundi liri acufatti, ombi ta hacayi hapilimen kaç liyale orambun ikuwa yam handu.

yale acufat re lavi yavorok alo angayiyi, aloni yacayi yaçukale.

Smooth English

Spiritual untrustworthiness (=betrayal) in the end brings your actions to an extremely difficult condition, at the same time it causes evil.

And so change your way of behaving, because you must not view other people as if they were the same as yourself.

It is behavior more important than life, therefore it must exist.

Mini Grammar

Basically SVO, agglutinating, inflecting; verbs are marked for subject with prefixes; two verbs in a row (same subject)—both take prefixes; adjectives (in base form) follow noun, when predicative, they are inflected like verbs; nouns are marked for plural and case. Inanimate nouns have the same form in nominative and accusative (there is just one [irreg.] animate accusative in the text, listed in vocab.) Most transitive verbs have the object in the dative.

There is much much more than you’ll need at

Sandhi et Al.

The nasal of the /añ-/ prefix assimilates to the initial consonant of the base and that consonant undergoes changes: N+voiceless stop > N+voiced; N+fricatives > plain stop (this also affects causative forms, but I’ve listed them in the vocab.); similarly, in root-final nasal+suffix, the nasal assimilates and the stop > voiced (the only such cases here).
/r/ in successive syllables is not permitted; usually, the first /r/ drops; here, this affects the /tar-/ prefix in one case.

Spelling convention: base-final vowels add /-y-/ before a front-vowel suffix;

In this text, there is one instance of plural+case transferred from the noun to the following adjective, a formal option.

Phonology: FYI, final /ñ/ is [N]. /ç/ is [S], /c/ is [tS]


ale to be; çukale (inchoative, idiomatic) to exist
alo (prep.) from; in comparisons,= ‘than’ (takes genitive); aloni (from-it/that) therefore
añ- forms nominals from verbs. (sandhi)
angaña situation, condition
inanimate plural suffix
cayi (aux.verb) must
çufat to behave
çunu different, rucunu (causative) to change
-e dative suffix
ende narrative particle, ~’and so…’
ha- 2nd pers. sing. verbal subject prefix
han irreg. accusative of /hat/ 2nd sing. pronoun
haniyu soul, heart, mind; inmost being
-i genitive suffix
-ka imperative suffix
kaç person
-kale suffix, forms adjectives from nouns; ‘pertaining to…’
kayi to live
kuwa same; kuwa yam… the same as…
kuwacu at the same time, simultaneously
-l- animate plural suffix; case suffixes follow
lavi more
leleñ (moral) good(ness)
liri (prep.) about, with respect to
liya other
lulusni finally
mepu to do, act
niya very; niniya is more emphatic
ombi because
orambun (conj.) as if
pilimen to consider, view as
rakop difficult
rata to come/arrive, rundata (causative) cause to come/arrive, bring, convey
re relative pron.
ri (locative prep.) to (with dative)
rumek to cause
ta not
tar- ~ tra- ~ta- negating prefix, un- ~ creates opposites (sandhi)
-ti 2nd pers. possessive suffix
-tu reflexive suffix, -self
vacan to believe, pravacan trustworty
valun method, way
vorok important
ya- 3rd pers. sing. verbal subject prefix (the /a/ drops before another /a/)
yam (prep.) with, takes accusative

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page started: 2008.Dec.07 Sun
last modified: 2008.Dec.07 Sun
form originated by qiihoskeh;
content copyright Roger Mills.