Éntas shalnenim'da sas n'enaln, t'ves céimavtas edh enalnhya. Vep'lajidim t'aejilórid so'shalnenim da sas kep, arin céimavjas eg ojhith. Akil én anyá aesam ne kaidaernim vesha'enalnhya, eg aichya.
Our souls make us feel responsible to others, and this feeling of responsibility makes use act with compassion. Because of the needs and strength of our souls, we determinedly try to act with compassion. However, and surprisingly, some people feel doubts about this feeling of responsibility.
Our people's soul make us religious and also religion makes us proper. of our soul's need and vitality, we therefore determinedly attempt to act properly; however, surprisingly, we experience some doubts about religion.
(see grammar guide for details)
|ae-||pron.||unspecified or hypothetical person [see grammar guide]|
|aejilórid||n.||strength, liveliness, vitality|
|anyá||n.||few, some (singular); many (plural)|
|arin||adv.||try (requires |-j-| on verb)|
|céimav||v.||act with compassionate responsibily|
|eg||mi.||[see grammar guide]|
|-hya||adj.||feeling of X|
|-im'da||pl.||(plural) [see grammar guide]|
|kep||adv.||(closing adverb for "vep")|
|ne||art.||[see grammar guide]|
|-sa||mi.||[see grammar guide]|
|ves'-||adv.||while ("t'ves" = conjunction of sentences)|
The native speakers of Asha'ille, the Cresaeans, are an empathic species. The words |céimav| and |enaln| are cornerstones of empathic Cresaean society. Without giving away too much of the relay text, think about what this might mean. :)
The rules below describe only the Asha'ille grammar exemplified in the relay text above. Where possible, I have "lied" about the grammar rules to simplfy the discussion to just what is necessary to translate the relay text. If you want more details, see Asha'ille Grammar.
Nouns are only marked for number: singular or plural. A plain noun is singular, while one with |-im| suffixed is plural. If the noun ends in a vowel, the suffix is simply |-m|.
There is another type of plural marker, |-im'da|, which has a broader meaning. For example:
|haláin| = "tree"
|haláinim| = "trees" (some specific trees)
|haláinim'da| = "all trees"
Asha'ille uses apostrophes for several different purposes:
- contractions (like in English)
- glottal stop
- joining prefixes or suffixes to base words (acting like a hyphen)
- marking a sonorant consonant as long (|n| /n/ vs |n'| /n:/)
If the word |ne|, which precedes the object of a sentence, is followed by a word which begins with an |n|, the two words combine with an apostrophe:
|haláin| = "tree" (subject of sentence)
|ne haláin| = "tree" (object of sentence)
|nagá| = "rat" (subject of sentence)
|n'agá| = "rat" (object of sentence)
Only one apostrophe is allowed per contigous string of letters. "Extra" apostrophes are replaced with spaces:
|nagám'da| = "all rats" (subject of sentence)
|n'agám da| = "all rats" (object of sentence)
Asha'ille verbs can be marked for tense and person, among other things. If no tense information is given, present tense is assumed.
Asha'ille's system of persons is quite complex, but this text happens to showcase only a very small portion of it. Verbal conjugations are suffixed to the verb, and pronouns and nouns follow the verb as the verb's subject. For example:
|-eith| = "friend" conjugation
|esa| = "friend" pronoun
|nagov| = "to eat"
|nagov nagá| = "the rat eats" (noun)
|nagov esa| = "my friend eats" (pronoun)
|nagoveith| = "my friend eats" (conjugation)
All verbs end with the letter |v|, after which suffixes are added. However, verbs ending in |-illev| may drop the |-illev| entirely:
|kénillev| = "to see"
|kénilleveith| = "my friend sees" (full verb)
|kéneith| = "my friend sees" (dropped |-illev|)
Thus, after dropping |-illev|, the verb now ends in |n|.
The particle |-t-| between a verb and its conjugation mean that something caused the action to happen. Context determines whether the causer really forced the agent to act, or whether the causer was really just a catalyst or enabler. For example:
|nagoveith n'agá| = "my friend eats the rat"
|nagovteith n'agá| = "my friend is forced to eat the rat"
The conjugation on the verb denotes the agent that performs the forced action. The causer is optional information. When present, it is in the subject position, as the noun immediately following the verb:
|nagovteith nagá| = "the rat makes my friend eat"
|nagovteith nagá n'agá| = "the rat makes my friend eat the rat" (presumably a different rat :))
Asha'ille is a fairly strict VSO language.
Adjectives of exactly one word come before the word they modify, otherwise they come after and are usually marked for which word they modify. Note that the "adjective" category includes adverbs -- an adverbizer is simply prefixed to the adjective.
Possessive phrases may occur after the
Subject and object(s) are separated by |ne|. The |ne| is required before all objects, even if the subject is only implicitly given:
|kén nagá ne haláin| = "the rat sees the tree"
|kén ne haláin| = "(something) sees the tree", or "the tree is seen"
Any number of adverbial phrases may be included after the core VSO sentence structure, and one single-word adverbial phrase (not counting the adverb itself) may precede the verb. |Eg| heads the generic adverbial phrase that further describes the action of the sentence:
|ejheth| = "happy"
|kén nagá ne haláin eg ejheth| = "the rat happily sees the tree"
Besides |eg|, most other adverbs (which have more specific meanings than |eg|) begin with a |v|:
|vilo'-| = "near"
|aimenad| = "village"
|vilo'aimenad kén nagá ne haláin| = "the rat sees the tree near the village"
If the adverbial phrase is more than one word long (not including the adverb itself), then a "closing adverb" is also required at the end of the phrase, and the entire adverbial phrase must occur after the core VSO structure:
|kilo| = closing adverb for |vilo'-|
|mleith| = "my friend's"
|kén nagá ne haláin vilo'mleith aimenad kilo| = "the rat sees the tree near my friend's village"
Note that in the first example above, the adverbial phrase precedes the verb, whereas in the second it follows the verb. This is because, according to Asha'ille word order rules, only one-word modifiers may precede their heads.
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page started: 2008.Nov.30 Sun
last modified: 2008.Dec.09 Tue
form originated by qiihoskeh;
content copyright Arthaey Angosii.