The Vallés  Constructed Language

Declension (La Declinadzón)

This uses the now standard version of the orthography.
This chapter covers the forms of declined words, those being nouns, adjectives, numbers, determiners, and pronouns. The relevent inflectional categories are Number (Singular and Plural), Gender (Masculine and Feminine), and Case. Number and gender apply, one way or another, to at least some words in each of the above mentioned word classes. Case applies only to pronouns. This chapter also covers adverbs and prepositions, for convenience.

There are a couple of additional wrinkles with respect to gender: some pronouns distinguish "animate" and "inanimate" rather than masculine and feminine. Also, some pronouns have a "gender" for referring to situations and abstractions.


A noun phrase is composed of declined word forms. The word forms agree with each other in number and gender. To complicate this, there's the matter of personal gender; this is when the natural gender of the referent overrides the inherent gender of the noun. It applies only when specific persons are referred to.
Add tables of examples for nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

Noun Forms (Los Nombles Sustantivs)

Each noun has an inherent gender, and most nouns are declined for number. Of those that are, the base form is the singular form, with plural formation generally involving the addition of -s, however complicated the details.

The different way of forming the plural are: Note that in many cases, an acute accent the occurs in the singular is dropped in the plural.
There may be a few exceptions to these rules, such as words that don't change in the plural, or use foreign plurals.

Adjective Forms (Los Nombles Àgeitivs)

Adjectives are declined for gender and number. Some adjectives use the same form for both genders. Of those that don't, the masculine form (for historical reasons) is the base form, with formation of the feminine form involving the addition of -a. Words of the latter group ending in o change the o to l before adding -a. The plural forms are formed in the same manner as for nouns.
The masculine plural is used for mixed genders, and may even be used in place of the feminine plural. This is probably due to a sound change law making final -as become -es, except when extra length was added to the vowel in order to emphasize the distinction.
Normally, comparatives are formed by preposing the adverb plus (more) before the adjective. There are also negative comparatives formed using mens (less) instead (see Comparison). However, a few adjectives also have suppletive comparative forms. Superlatives are formed by using any positive (or negative) comparative with the definite article. There is another kind of superlative formed with the suffix -issem; there are suppletive forms for these, too.

Special Comparative Forms
Positive Comparative Superlative
large grand larger, largest mageor largest mæxem
small pe??? smaller, smallest menor smallest minem
good buen better, best melhor best otem?
bad mal/cativ worse, worst pegeor worst pessem
high alt higher, highest   highest  
low bass lower, lowest   lowest  
old viago elder, eldest   eldest  
young geône younger, youngest   youngest  

Nouns, adjectives, and determiners ending in a change that to ŏ when the next word in the phrase begins with a labialized consonant or consonant + [w].

Adverbs (Los Àviarbis)

There are 3 kinds of adverbs:
  1. those which are identical to the masculine singular of the corresponding adjectives,
  2. those regularly derived from adjectives by placing ment after the feminine singular form, and
  3. those not derived from adjectives.
For the 2nd kind, if the plural of the adjective is formed by adding -es, an -e is added before ment.
The last comment should refer instead to the Mobile "E" section of morphology.

Number Words (Los Nombraz)

The kinds of numbers include the cardinal and ordinal numbers. Ordinal numbers are declined like adjectives. The word for "one" is declined for gender and singular in number. The word for "two" is declined for gender and plural in number. All other cardinal numbers are plural and not declined, agreeing with either gender.
There are 2 columns for the ordinals only because some have more than 1 proposed form.

Cardinal and Ordinal 1 to 10
  Cardinals Ordinals
values masc. femin.  
1 ún úna prim primær
2 dûs duas segond segondær
3 tres tiartz tærtzær
4 quatr quart
5 cinc quint
6 six sixt
7 siat setem siatem
8 ueit uitav
9 nuæv nône ? novén ?
10 diage degem diagem

10's and 100's and 1000's
  x 10     x 100     x 1000  
20 vint 200 dussianta ? 2000 duas milha ?
30 trinta 300 tressianta ? 3000 tres milha ?
40 curenta 400 quatrecianta ? 4000 quatr milha ?
50 cincuenta 500 cincocianta ? 5000 cinc milha ?
60 sixenta 600 sissianta ? 6000 six milha ?
70 setuenta 700 siatecianta ? 7000 siat milha ?
80 uituinta 800 ueitocianta ? 8000 ueit milha ?
90 nuventa 900 nuævecianta ? 9000 nuæv milha ?
100 ciant 1000 mil ? 10000 diage milha ?

Additive Combinations
10 + digit 20 + digit 30 + digit
11 once 21 vintedun 31 trintaidun
12 dôce 22 vintèdûs 32 trintaidûs
13 trêce 23 vintetrés 33 trintaitrés
14 quatorce 24 vintequatr 34 trintaiquatr
15 quince 25 vintecinc 35 trintaicinc
16 sêce 26 vintessix 36 trintæssix
17 diagessiat 27 vintessiat 37 trintæssiat
18 diagedueit 28 vintedueit 38 trintaidueit
19 diagènuæv 29 vintènuæv 39 trintènuæv

The combinations for 41 through 99 are formed like those for 31 through 39. In other combinations, the larger number comes first. Note that combinations ending in 1 or 2 are not declined.

Determiners and Pronouns

The forms of these are highly unstable.
A pronoun serves as a noun phrase by itself, while a determiner begins a noun phrase containing additional words. Some of the words given under pronouns can also be used as determiners.


The determiners include the definite, indefinite, and partitive articles.
Actually, I'm not sure if I'm going to use the partitive articles, or plural indefinite articles.
The abstract "gender" is used before adjectives to be used as abstract nouns.

Forms of the Definite Article
  Singular Plural
occurs before masculine feminine abstract masculine feminine
  stressed vowel el el lo los las
unstressed vowel l la (1) lo (1) los las
velar stop o la (2) los las
other stop l la (2) los las
other consonant le la (2) los (3) las (3)
(1) Sandhi occurs.
(2) If the consonant is labialized or followed by [w], the article becomes .
(3) The usual s/z/affricate changes occur in pronunciation.

The heading "unstressed vowel" might actually be vowel in short syllable, with the other unstressed vowels falling under "stressed vowel".

Forms of the Indefinite and Partitive Articles
  Indefinite Singular Partitive Plural
occurs before masculine feminine abstract masculine feminine
stressed vowel un un uno ? dèz dèz
unstressed vowel un una (1) uno ? (1) dèz dèz
any stop un una (2) ? dez dez
other consonant un una (2) ? dez (3) dez (3)
(1) Sandhi occurs.
(2) If the consonant is labialized or followed by [w], the article becomes unŏ.
(3) The usual s/z/affricate changes occur in pronunciation.

The partitive plural form comes from de + los > deles > dels > dèz. This was replaced by analogical de los in non-partitive usages, creating a distinction which subsequently spread to the feminine forms as well. There are also partitive singular forms used only for mass nouns; these are the same as de + definite article.
There may also be a leftover form àz, derived from a + los.

Pronouns (Los Pronombles)

The different kinds of pronouns are: Pronouns are the only word in Vallés  which distinguish different cases. The possible cases are:

Subject if 1st or 2nd person, used only when focused
Direct Object unstressed
Indirect Object unstressed
Object of Preposition stressed
Sociative archaic ?
Topic possibly same form as subject
Possessive (some of these are adjectives instead)

Topic probably won't be a separate case. Instead, either the Subject will be used, if the topic is also the subject, or the Object of Preposition will be used (with no preposition).
The Sociative forms are typically replaced by con + Object of Preposition forms, especially outside of the reflexive and 1st and 2nd persons singular.
How a word or phrase relates to the verb (amd the rest of the clause) is called the word or phrase's role. The case of a word or phrase is the form it takes for a particular role. Cases are usually named after their roles.
Personal Pronouns (Los Pronombles Pærsonaz)
A reflexive pronoun has the same referent as the verb's subject.
In Vallés , the pronouns labeled reflexive can be used for either singular or plural, but only with the 3rd person. For the 1st and 2nd person, the object pronouns function also as the reflexives.

Personal Pronouns
  Singular Reflexive Plural
"case" 1st Person 2nd Person 1st Person 2nd Person
Subject nós vós
Direct Object me te se nos vos
Indirect Object mi ? ti ? si ? nos ? vos ?
Object of Preposition nós? vós?
Sociative meg teg seg nosc ?? vosc ??
Possessive Stem mi ti si nuæstr vuæstr

3rd Person Pronouns
  Singular Plural
"case" masculine feminine abstract masculine feminine
Subject ill ? ella ell ? elles ellas
Direct Object le ? la los las
Indirect Object li ? li ? lis ? lis ?
Object of Preposition loi ? loi ? loi ? lor ? lor ?

The direct object and indirect object pronouns for all persons are unstressed. Where both occur, the indirect object pronouns precede the direct object pronouns.

Unstressed object pronouns precede finite verbs, except imperatives. The 3rd person feminine singular direct object la becomes l before a vowel if that syllable is long. The 3rd person masculine singular direct object le becomes l before a vowel. Other direct object pronouns change a final e to i before a vowel.

It could be argued that the 3rd person masculine singular direct object pronoun is actually l + É Movil.

Unstressed object pronouns are added to the end of imperatives and infinitives. Infinitives of the 3rd conjugation add É Movil when adding 3rd person pronouns, while infinitives of the 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations drop the final r. The 3rd person indirect object pronouns change l to ll in the latter case. The first pronoun added is written without a space between the verb and the pronoun.

Interrogative Pronouns (Los Pronombles ???)

Interrogative Pronouns
"case" Animate Inanimate Situational
Subject quí qué qué
Direct Object quian qué qué
Indirect Object cui cui ?
Object of Preposition cui ? cui ? qué
Sociative quig ?
Possessive Stem  

Relative Pronouns (Los Pronombles Reladivs)
The relative pronouns are complicated, also depending on whether or not there's an antecedent, whether the relative clause is restrictive or non-restrictive, and the case of the relative clause.

Relative Pronouns
  Interrogative Relative
"case" Animate Inanimate Animate Inanimate
Subject quí qué
Direct Object quian qué
Indirect Object cui ? cui ?
Object of Preposition cui ? cui ?
Possessive Stem  

Indefinite Pronouns (Los Pronombles Indefinidz)

Possessive Pronouns and Determiners (Los Possessivs)

  Singular Plural
  masculine feminine abstract masculine feminine
1st person mia mîs mias
1st person mio mia mios mias
2nd person tua tûs tuas
2nd person tua tôs tuas
Reflexive sua sûs suas
Reflexive sua sôs suas

Sound Changes: Prevocalic CL i and e become VL /j/ and prevocalic CL u becomes VL /w/. However, when stressed, they become /e/, /E/, and /o/, respectively. Possibly, these are raised by a following palatal (to i, e, and u). The rounded back vowels fall together before a non-rounded or non-back vowel (as o after a liquid, otherwise as u). Likewise, the front non-low vowels fall together before a back or low vowel (as i). The questions are:
  1. What happens before a like vowel?
  2. What about the perfect system, where the following vowel may have been absorbed early on?

Demonstratives (Los Demostradivs)

These words can be used as either determiners or pronouns. There are 2 sets: one denoting locative deixis (quist*, quiss*, quill*), and the other psychological (ist*, iss*).
Note that ill* is used as the 3rd person pronoun family.

  Singular Plural
occurs before masculine feminine abstract masculine feminine
near 1st person quist ? questa questes questas
near 2nd person quiss ? quessa quesses quessas
near 3rd person quill ? quella quelles quellas
indefinite specific ist ? esta est ? estes estas
non-specific definite iss ? essa ess ? esses essas

The abstract forms refer to situations.
The qu may be cu instead, but probably not. There may be other changes as well. There will also be forms constructed from the locational demonstrative stems + í (indicating location) and + ai (indicating direction). The forms are not certain; there may be irregularities (like Spanish aquí).

Prepositional Contractions (Las Contraiceons de los Artigos Conglas Preposidzons)

These are given here because some of them combine with following determiners and pronouns.

Contractions of Prepositions with Definite Articles
  * de * a * au * en * con * per * por *
masc. sing. le de le ale aule engle congle pelle pole
o (1) dio ao aule engo congo pero poro
l (2) del al aule engo congo perel porel
el (3) del al aul engl congl perel porel
femin. sing. el (3) del al aul engl congl perel porel
la de la ala aula engla congla pella pola
(4) de lŏ alŏ aulŏ englŏ conglŏ pellŏ polŏ
abstract de lò alò aulò englò conglò pellò polò
lo (3) de lo alo aulo englo conglo pello polo
masc. plur. los de los alos ? aulos ? engles ? conglos ? pelles ? poles ?
femin. plur. las de las alas aulas englas conglas pellas polas
(1) before velar stop
(2) before non-velar stop
(3) before vowel (maybe only in long syllables)
(4) before labiovelar

I'm not sure if au exists, or if it is really dia instead. Regular sound change causes the masculine plural forms to end in -es. However, analogy tends to change them back to -os.
Prepositions ending in consonants usually take É Movil before the definite article. Most prepositions can thus act like de.

page started: 2004.Aug.02 ???
last modified: 2008.Apr.29 Tue
content and form originated by Jeffrey S. Jones

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