|2004.Aug.27: ||(preliminary upload)|
This uses the now standard version of the orthography.
This chapter gives an overview of Vallés
morphology. It covers derivation, and regular changes that apply to both
declension and conjugation as well as to derivation.
Common Morphological Considerations
Purely Orthographical Changes
There are occasions when -e or -i is
added to a base ending in c or g
without changing the consonant's pronunciation; in this case,
c becomes qu and
g becomes gu.
Other Orthographic Changes
These are the changes in pronunciation that are reflected in writing.
Changes In Accentuation
Changes in accent marks are in this section, because there are related tone
changes, both when dropping the acute and when replacing a circumflex with a
Mobile "E" (É Movil)
Mobile "E" is a term for an e that appears on a
given word form in some circumstances, but not others, independent of
inflection or derivation. There are 2 varieties:
- initially before sp, st,
sc, squ, or
x when not preceded in the same phrase by
a word ending in a vowel. It's always pronounced
This variety is pronounced but not written in citation forms.
- finally after certain consonants and clusters when the next word
in the same phrase begins with a consonant. The pronunciation
varies from [IX] to [e]. A word already
ending in (silent) e replaces that with
The application rules for the 2nd variety haven't been worked out yet.
Rounding of Final "A"
This refers to the replacement of a word-final a with
ŏ. It occurs when the next word in the same
phrase begins with a labialized (rounded) consonant, specifically,
[kW], [gW], [NW],
It might also occur when the next word begins with a consonant followed by
[w], and even when the next word begins with a consonant followed by
a rounded vowel (, [u], [o], or [O]).
Pronunciation Changes Not Reflected In Writing
These perhaps belong in the phonology chapter.
Liaison (liadzón) occurs when a word ending in
a consonant is followed by a word in the same phrase beginning with a
vowel. The consonant is pronounced as if it were the start of the 2nd word,
rather than the end of the 1st word. A consonant cluster is treated the same.
Vowel Sandhi occurs when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a
word in the same phrase also beginning with a vowel, and the 2 vowels
combine, being pronounced as a diphthong or a long vowel.
These rules haven't been worked out, either.
Derivational Affixes (Derivadzóns)
Derivations With Same Part of Speech
The suffix -ona is used when the resulting word refers to
a female person, and has feminine gender. Otherwise, the suffix
-ón is used and the resulting word has masculine
This is covered in Adjectives. Possibly diminutives, augmentatives, and
pejoratives should be covered in Nouns. This leaves verbal derivatives
and denominative verbs.
These produce nouns or adjectives from verbs.
Derived from the supine as follows:
- -d becomes -dzón
- -t becomes -tzón
(-ceón in some cases)
- -ss becomes -xón
- -s becomes -jón
Derived from the supine by adding -ura.
page started: 2004.Aug.06
last modified: 2004.Aug.27
last modified: 2007.Nov.13 Tue
content and form originated by Jeffrey S. Jones
Table of Contents
Home Page of Jeffrey S. Jones