Naisek – A Constructed Language

Orthography and Phonology

Basic Orthography

The phonetic values used here are according to CXS (CONLANG X-SAMPA), with IPA also used in the tables. Since the orthography is almost phonemic, specific symbols for the phonemes won't be used.


p [p] [p] t [t] [t] k [k] [k]
b [b] [b] d [d] [d] g [g] [ɡ]
ts [ts)] [ts͡] c [tS)] [tʃ͡]
j [dZ)] [dʒ͡]
f [f] [f] s [s] [s] x [S] [ʃ] h [h] [h]
[v] [v] [z] [z] [Z] [ʒ]
m [m] [m] n [n] [n] n [N] [ŋ]
l [l] [l] y [j] [j] w [w] [w]
r [r] [r]


i [i] [i] u [u] [u]
e [e] [e] o [o] [o]
[E] [ɛ] [O] [ɔ]
a [a] [a]


Quantity and Syllabic Weight

The weight or length of a syllable depends on its rhyme, that is, the combination of its vowel nucleus and consonant coda. The rhyme types distinguished by the stress rules of Naisek  are (where -V: stands for a long vowel):

-V 1 mora light or short
-VC, -VV, and -V: 2 moras heavy or long
-VCC and -VVC 3 moras extraheavy or extralong

Stress Rules

Words of one or two syllables can be stressed or unstressed, depending on the word. Words of three or more syllables are always stressed.

The stress rules for words of two syllables are:
  1. if the ultima is extraheavy, stress it; otherwise
  2. stress the penult.
The stress rules for words of three or more syllables are:
  1. if the ultima is extraheavy, stress it; otherwise
  2. if the penult is extraheavy, stress it; otherwise
  3. if the penult is heavy, stress it; otherwise
  4. stress the antepenult.
The catch is that long vowels are not marked as such! Because of this, morphology must be taken into account. The following suffixes may be considered as having long vowels in the singular absolutive forms: Certain derivational suffixes may be considered as having long vowels. There's one additional rule:

Additional Considerations

Aside from the lengthening mentioned above, rhymes consisting of a single vowel are short whenever possible. The cases where the vowel must be long are: There are a couple of modifications to the standard orthography used as aids in reading text out loud. The first simply adds an h after a vowel or diphthong to indicate a heavy or extraheavy syllable. This may be considered an extension of the use of silent h occurring in some words and/or a retention of historical h. The second uses diacritical marks, as follows:


C = T | D | S | h | N | L | Y
P = p, t, k, b, d, g
T = p, t, k, c, ts
D = b, d, g, j
S = f, s, x
N = m, n
L = l, r
Y = y, w
V = i, a, e, o, u

Additional Material

When morphemes are combined, certain modifications may have to be made in order for the combination to conform to the phonotactics. As the changes pertaining to inflection are handled in the morphology chapters, this section is concerned mainly with compounding. The following subsections are named according to the ending of the first morpheme and the beginning of the second.

Vowel + Consonant

No changes are needed.

Consonant + Vowel

No changes are needed.

Vowel + Vowel

Vowel Combinations
+i +e +a +o +u
i+ i ye ya yo yu
e+ ei e eu eu
a+ ai ai a au au
o+ oi oi o ou
u+ wi we wa wo u

Consonant + Consonant

I may expand on the consonant and vowel insertion rules at some future time. There may also be some internal changes to unstressed morphemes that needs to be documented.

page started: 2007.Jan.04 Thu
was modified: 2008.Jun.18 Wed
current page: 2008.Jun.18 Wed
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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