CONLANG Translation Relay 16

Naisek (Ring C)

Jeffrey S. Jones

Naisek Text

Glohax hal Raxmigil

Swala jemor stor leikin cefklape linkwaripe kori fusbelum,
biyoku glohax har taujer swam jemum tai
kori hilum raxmigilum swam jemum joufam.
Stor hostin leikax fraspingo cefklape linkwaripe kori fusbelum,
juku darbitoku hil brumel taujelum talum.
Nage pyali jemli stwe gamlin kwim raxmigim;
stwe glohin kori tim.
Ga moldiki.

Smooth English of Naisek Text

Understanding the Virtues

Every person behaves with compassionate concern about failings,
the heart of each person making him or her understand
about the virtues of each other person.
They try to behave determinedly with compassionate concern about failings,
the needs of their hearts being very important.
But few persons doubt one virtue;
they understand about it.
I'm not sure.

Grammatical Notes

Note: Although I use ergative-type terminology in the grammar, Naisek is more of a direct role alignment language (i.e. the case of an argument doesn't change when the verb becomes passive) with some fluid-S behavior.

Naisek is an agglutinative language with some incipient fusion, and is mostly suffixing.

The order of phrases within a clause is determined pragmatically. The word order within phrases (when all types appear) is:
determiner, quantifier, noun, adjective.

Nouns have implicit gender (animate and inanimate) and are marked for number (singular and plural) and case (only the absolutive, dative, ergative, genitive, and instrumental occur here). The partly fused suffixes are given below. There are different suffixes for vowel stems and consonant stems.

Adjectives, quantifiers (here), and the definite article agree with the noun in gender, number, and case. For all of these, the gender suffix (consistently -a for animate and -i for inanimate) comes first. The number and case suffixes are the same as those for vowel-stem nouns.

The only other declined forms occuring here are given in the vocabulary section.

The number and case suffixes occurring here are as follows, with the vowel-stem suffixes given first (if both occur in the text).

Absolutive Plural: -l
Dative Plural: -li
Ergative Singular: -r
Ergative Plural: -la, -or
Genitive Singular: -m, -um
Genitive Plural: -lum
Instrumental Singular: -pe

Phrases in the genitive case are used as either possessors or objects of prepositions and follow their heads except in cases that don't apply here.

Phrases in the instrumental case specify the means or instrument.

Adjectives can take a suffix -ingo denoting adverbs of manner.

Participles can take a suffix -u making the participle the head of an adjunct clause.

Class V5I verbs are regularly derived from adjectives using the suffix -(i)t.

The relevent finite verb stems are:

-0 basic stem (all present indicative here)

Finite verb forms end in subject agreement suffixes. These distinguish (redundantly) the subject's case as well as its person and number. The forms occurring are:

1st person singular dative: -(i)ki
3rd person plural ergative: -tor
3rd person plural dative: -twe

The non-finite verb forms are the participles, infinitives, and verbal nouns. Each of these may occur in a compound tense (with no further suffixing) following the copula. The infinitive is also used as the complement of various auxiliary verbs. The relevent suffixes are:

-ax infinitive
-in verbal noun (habitual aspect in compound tense)
-ok progressive participle


Only the bare stems of inflected forms are given. Verbs, adjectives, and determiners always take some non-zero suffix (see grammar). Some inflected forms have been included.

Word/stem Types

A adjective
ADV adverb
C conjunction or particle
D determiner or pronoun
NA noun, animate
NI noun, inanimate
P preposition
Q quantifier or number
V#$ verb, where # = argument structure class and $ = TAM class

The argument structure classes are:

2 Ergative subject, Absolutive object
3 Dative subject, Absolutive object
4 Ergative or Absolutive subject
7 auxiliary; subject agrees according to the content verb

The TAM classes are:

P basic stem represents imperative
M basic stem represents present imperfective indicative
I basic stem represents present imperfective indicative

Words and Stems

bili V2P make (irregular)
brume NI need, necessity
cefkla NI concern, responsibility
darb A important
frasp A determined (set on doing something)
fusbe NI fault, failing
ga ADV not
gaml V3I doubt
gloh V3I understand (empathetically)
h D definite article
host V7P try (attempt)
jem NA person
jouf A other
juku ADV very
kori P about
kw Q one
leik V4P behave
linkwar A compassionate
mold V3M be sure of
nage C but
py Q few (plural only)
raxmigi NI virtue
s V-- copula (only in compound tenses)
sw (singular) Q each
sw (plural) Q all
tai D 3rd person animate singular dative
talum D 3rd person animate plural genitive
tauje NA heart (metaphorical only)
tim D 3rd person inanimate singular genitive

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page started: 2008.Nov.27 Thu
last modified: 2008.Dec.09 Tue
form originated by qiihoskeh;
content copyright Jeffrey S. Jones.