|Ring B next:||Aingeljã|
|Ring B previous:||Emihtazuu|
As for my patience, a cat destroyed it completely.
I remember that it was a very large cat.
It played a trick on me on the occasion that Tɔma wanted to open a barrel of water.
"What kind of nonsense are you thinking?"
"In which corner of the marketplace could Tɔma possibly be a barrel?", I said.
"Of course he is not a barrel at all; Tɔma is a person!"
But the cat, who had been eating a fish, did not understand my words.
She had been given the fish by Tɔma.
My childlikeness, a large yurt-cat has killed it.
I believe it was a large cat.
This animal lied because Thomas needed to open a bottle.
'Is Thomas a bottle?', I said.
'He is not a large bottle; this person is Thomas.'
The cat, who had eaten a fish, did not understand (lit. was not made to understand).
The object that Thomas carried was a fish.
Nzo ña’éxu axe, na u ñufɛ tsə xoñi leda.
Seya məmat rɛ nə lo ñufɛ ɔ ñavra ntsa.
Nɛ sɛga rabɛ rɛ ɛ’iya Tɔma ɔ raxolbo kwə u sɔmɛ mvomérɔ.
"Xɛwa ste’ɔwa ño u tsəñe nəbe? O ewa tso u lo ñuylu pɔwə dediɡa Tɔma ɔ raxolbo?", neya mve.
"Alme ma ntɛvɔ́ve loru ɔ raxolbo; esə Tɔma ɔ maldɔ!"
Dal ma lo ñufɛ, rɔma ɔ mpɛsa nə tul, lu lɛwi axe kwemi.
Nɔdɔwa lu mpɛsa nzɛwə u Tɔma.
- mostly isolating
- basic word order: AuxSOV with occasional topic fronting and subclause postposing
- basic morphosyntactic alignment: NOM-ACC
- no lexical distinction between nouns and adjectives
- nouns/adjectives do not inflect at all
- determiners are mandatory in full noun phrases (except when the head of the noun phrase is a pronoun or a proper name)
- nouns without a determiner usually have adjectival function
- most determiners are marked for case
- nominal number is unmarked
- prepositions inflect for the person of their object (almost all instances in the text are 3rd person)
- each preposition governs a specific case for their object
- objects of prepositions can be omitted if clear from context
- content verbs do not inflect at all
- auxiliary verbs are mandatory in all clauses
- auxiliary verbs inflect for person and number of the subject AND person of the object
- aspect, mood, and voice are indicated by the choice of the auxiliary
- no tense marking
- additional distinctions may be made by adding one or more uninflected auxiliaries right before the content verb, or sentence-finally if the content verb is missing
- in clauses which have no content verb but contain an accusative-marked noun phrase, the auxiliary functions as a copula
|ah||pp.+ NOM||of, belonging to, with regard to|
|alme||adv.||surely, certainly, invariably, without exception, of course|
|axe||(pp.)||(1st person object form of ah: "of me")|
|dediga||adv.||maybe, possibly, conceivably|
|ɛ’i-||aux.||(optative auxiliary: "want")|
|esə-||aux.||(emphatic/abilitative auxiliary: "do indeed, can indeed")|
|ewa||det./pron.||which one? (accusative)|
|kwə||pp.+ NOM||with, having (comitative)|
|lo||det.||(definite article, nominative)|
|loru||pron.||(3rd person animate singular, nominative)|
|lu||det.||(definite article, accusative)|
|ma-||aux.||(negative auxiliary: "do not")|
|maldɔ||n.||person; human beingfs|
|nə-||aux.||(perfective auxiliary: "has done")|
|nəbe||v.||think about, refer to, have in mind, mean, intend|
|nɔdɔ-||aux.||(past resultative auxiliary: "had done before; had become")|
|ntɛvɔ́ve||adv.||in vain; (in negated clauses) not at all|
|nzɛwə||v.||receive, be given sth.|
|nzo||det.||(topic marker, accusative)|
|ñavra||n.||broad, wide, large|
|ño||pp.+ NOM||as, like (essive)|
|ñuylu||n.||main square, marketplace|
|ɔ||det.||(indefinite article, accusative)|
|o||pp. +ACC||at, on|
|pɔ-||aux.||(conditional/irrealis auxiliary: "might, would, could")|
|rabɛ||pp. +ACC||at the time of, while, during|
|rɔma-||aux.||(relative clause auxiliary; relativized noun is topic but not necessarily subject of subclause)|
|sɛga||v.||lie, deceive, play tricks on sb.|
|sə-||aux.||(null auxiliary: "do")|
|ste-||aux.||(progressive/durative auxiliary: "be doing")|
|Tɔma||n.||(a male name)|
|tsə||det./pron.||(distal deictic, accusative: "that, those")|
|tsəñe||n.||unlikely, far-fetched, having a non-obvious connection|
|u||det.||(indefinite article, nominative)|
|u||pp.+ NOM||of, from, relating to (associative/genitive)|
|xoñi||v.||break, destroy, tear apart|
|-’ɔwa||suffix||2nd person singular subject, 3rd person object|
|-a||suffix||3rd person singular subject, 3rd person object (-ya after /i e ɛ/, -wa after /u o ɔ/)|
|-ɛ||suffix||3rd person singular subject, 1st person object|
|-e||suffix||1st person singular intransitive|
|-eya||suffix||1st person singular subject, 3rd person object|
|-ə||suffix||3rd person singular intransitive (-Ø after /a/, -wə after /u o ɔ/)|
Nzo ña’éxu axe, na u ñufɛ tsə xoñi leda. TOP.ACC patience GEN.1 PFV.AUX-3SG>3 INDEF.NOM cat that.ACC break completely As for my patience, a cat destroyed it completely. Seya məmat rɛ nə lo ñufɛ ɔ ñavra ntsa. NULL.AUX-1SG>3 remember SUB.ACC PFV.COP-3SG DEF.NOM cat INDEF.ACC large very I remember that it was a very large cat. Nɛ sɛga rabɛ rɛ ɛ’iya Tɔma ɔ raxolbo kwə u sɔmɛ mvomérɔ. PFV.AUX-3SG>1 deceive during.3 SUB.ACC OPT.AUX-3SG>3 NAME INDEF.ACC barrel with.3 INDEF.NOM water CAUS-open It played a trick on me on the occasion that Tɔma wanted to open a barrel of water. "Xɛwa ste’ɔwa ño u tsəñe nəbe?" what.ACC PROG.AUX-2SG>3 as.3 INDEF.NOM unlikely_thing think "What kind of nonsense are you thinking?" "O ewa tso u lo ñuylu pɔwə dediɡa Tɔma ɔ raxolbo?", neya mve. at.3 which.ACC corner from.3 DEF.NOM marketplace COND.COP-3SG possibly NAME INDEF.ACC barrel PFV.AUX>1SG>3 say "In which corner of the marketplace could Tɔma possibly be a barrel?", I said. "Alme ma ntɛvɔ́ve loru ɔ raxolbo; esə Tɔma ɔ maldɔ!" invariably NEG.COP-3SG not_at_all 3SG.ANIM.NOM INDEF.ACC barrel EMPH.COP-3SG NAME INDEF.ACC person "Of course he is not a barrel at all; Tɔma is a person!" Dal ma lo ñufɛ, rɔma ɔ mpɛsa nə tul, lu lɛwi axe kwemi. but NEG.AUX-3SG>3 DEF.NOM cat REL.AUX-3SG>3 INDEF.ACC fish PFV.AUX eat DEF.ACC word of.1 understand But the cat, who had been eating a fish, did not understand my words. Nɔdɔwa lu mpɛsa nzɛwə u Tɔma RES.AUX-3SG>3 DEF.ACC fish receive from.3 NAME She had been given the fish by Tɔma.
page started: 2018.Feb.01 Thu
current date: 2018.Feb.08 Thu
content originated by Jan Strasser
form originated by qiihoskeh
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