The Jul21 Constructed Language

Jul21 Morphology

Verb Stem Formation

The structure of a verb form is as follows, where Base includes the Root and any derivational suffixes.



Positive polarity is unmarked.

Polarity Suffixes
Suffix Tag Name
-an -Neg negative
-ix -Aff affirmative


The aspects have both traditional and descriptive names. The aspect suffixes combine with a following imperative mood suffix, also shown in the following table.

Aspect Suffixes
Suffix Imperative Tag Names
-a -Dur present or durative
-Aor aoristic
-o -Prf perfect or retrospective
-e - -Fut future or prospective
-ɪma -ɪmâ -Hab habitual

Verb Agreement

A verb form may be a participle, an infinitive, or finite, as determined by the agreement affixes. There may be 1 agreement suffix, specifying the subject, agent, or donor, and up to 2 agreement prefixes: the 1st specifies location, patient, or recipient while the 2nd (which is always inanimate) specifies location or theme. Any class of verb may take the agreement suffix.

Agreement Suffixes

In entries with 2 forms, the 2nd is used with the aoristic aspect and the 1st with all other aspects. The imperative suffix isn't shown since it always combines with the preceding aspect suffix; see the Aspect Suffixes table.

Agreement Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-s, -si -1S 1st person singular
-r, -ri -1P 1st person plural
-k, -ki -2 2nd person
-0 -3 3rd person
-f, -fi -U Unspecified
-* .Imp Imperative (2nd person)

Participant Suffixes

The participant suffixes make finite forms into participles. There's also a suffix for action nominals. Only forms with 3rd person subjects can be used as agent participles, since coreference requires that the appropriate argument be 3rd person (with no phrase appearing). Action nominals and oblique (instrument and location) participles don't require any core arguments to be 3rd person. Participles and action nominals may be further inflected as nouns.

Participant Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-0 -Agt agent
-to -Ani animate patient or recipient
-mo -Ina inanimate patient or theme
-pe -Ins instrument
-la -Loc location
-he -Act action (non-participant)

The temporal adjunct suffix -q (-Tmp) is appended to a participant suffix forming temporal participles and temporal action nominals.

The conditional forms are constructed by appending -hec (Cond) to finite forms.

Agreement Prefixes

The 3rd person theme prefix combines with the preceding recipient prefix.

Agreement Prefixes
Prefix + 3T- Tag Description Slot
je- jô- 1S- 1st person singular 1st
be- byô- 1P- 1st person plural
go- gû- 2- 2nd person
so- sû- Rfx- Reflexive (all persons)
0- u- 3R- 3rd person recipient or patient
na- nau- UR- Unspecified recipient or patient
u- 3T- 3rd person theme 2nd
0- UT- Unspecfied theme

Nouns and Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

The genitives of pronouns have special forms used as possessive determiners:

Personal Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Genitive Partitive Description
jen 1S jema - 1st person singular
ben 1P bema bentai 1st person plural
gon 2 goma gontai 2nd person
son Rfx soma sontai reflexive
den 3AS dema - 3rd person animate singular
3IS der? - 3rd person inanimate singular
del 3M dela deltai 3rd person inanimate mass
demo 3AP demor demotai 3rd person animate plural
dex 3IP dexa dextai 3rd person inanimate plural

Other Pronouns

Other Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Genitive Partitive Description
cen CQ? cema centai content question, personal
CQ? cer? câtai? content question, general
paran Uni? parama parantai universal quantifier, personal
parâ Uni? parar? parâtai? universal quantifier, general
RP? qar? qâtai? relative pronoun

Noun Inflections

Nouns are inflected for number (singular and plural and/or mass) and for case. The specific inflections depend on whether the noun stem ends in a vowel or a consonant. The vocative singular suffix combines with the stem vowel. Mass nouns are inflected as plural nouns in the partitive and as singular nouns otherwise.

Noun Declensions
Case Singular Plural
V-Stem C-Stem V-Stem C-Stem
Abs -0 -0 -x -o
Voc -i -i -xi -oi
Gen -r -a -xa -or
Par - - -tai -tai

Nouns may also be inflected for polarity. The suffixes are the same as for verbs and appear between the noun stem and any number-case suffix. Vowel-stem nouns insert h between the stem and the suffix.

Derivational Morphology

Demonstrative and Indefinite Pronouns

Each demonstrative pronoun consists of a demonstrative determiner ( Prox, Medi, and Dist) followed by an indefinite pronoun.

Indefinite Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Description
be AS indefinite animate singular
ho IS indefinite inanimate singular
hol M indefinite inanimate mass
bex AP indefinite animate plural
hox IP indefinite inanimate plural

Affixing Verbs

Several verbs, such as sɪt "at", can act like suffixes to a preceding object or, conversely, the preceding object acts like a prefix. The objects include nouns and the elements listed below. When the object is a noun, the combinations are written with a hyphen - in between.

Prefixing Elements
Prefix Tag Description
si- Prox- demonstrative, proximal
do- Medi- demonstrative, medial
la- Dist- demonstrative, distal
ce- CQ- content question
ne- Ind- indefinite
para- Uni- universal quantifier
qa- RP- relative pronoun

Examples include sist "here" and rexpa-nd "to the house".

Superlatives and Numbers

Superlatives are verbs regularly derived from adjectival verbs using the suffix -ɪt (-Sup). Ordinal numbers are verbs derived from the corresponding cardinal numbers using the suffix -ɪm (-Ord), except that "first" and "last" are superlatives of nuf "early" and qor "late", respectively.

The cardinal numbers are uninflected. They're shown in the following table along with the corresponding ordinal number stems. To add the single digits to the tens values, append the corresponding cardinal (or ordinal) to the tens cardinal, e.g. 31 salkyôhin (salkyônuft).

Value Cardinal Ordinal Value Cardinal Ordinal
1 hin nuft 10 kyô kyôm
2 hix hixm 20 kêx kêxm
3 sal salm 30 salkyô salkyôm
4 pol polm 40 polkyô polkyôm
5 ken kemm 50 kenkyô kenkyôm
6 seji sejêm 60 sejikyô sejikyôm
7 tagi tagîm 70 tagikyô tagikyôm
8 denu denûm 80 denukyô denukyôm
9 bôm 90 bôkyô bôkyôm

page started: 2014.Jul.22 Tue
current date: 2014.Jul.27 Sun
content and form originated by qîhoskeh

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