The Jul13 Constructed Language

Jul13 Morphology

Note: the letter ɪ represents an i that gets deleted under certain phonological circumstances.

Verb Stem Formation

The structure of a verb form is as follows, where Base includes the Root and any derivational suffixes.



Positive polarity is unmarked.

Polarity Suffixes
Suffix Tag Name
-an -Neg negative
-ix -Aff affirmative


The aspects have both traditional and descriptive names. Durative aspect is unmarked for static verbs while aoristic aspect is unmarked for dynamic verbs.

Aspect Suffixes
Suffix Tag Names
-nɪ -Dur present or durative
-ho -Aor aoristic
-te -Prf perfect or retrospective
-po -Fut future or prospective
-uk -Hab habitual

Verb Agreement

A verb form may be a participle, an infinitive, or finite, as determined by the agreement affixes. There may be 1 agreement suffix, specifying the subject, agent, or donor, and up to 2 agreement prefixes: the 1st specifies location, patient, or recipient while the 2nd (which is always inanimate) specifies location or theme. Any class of verb may take the agreement suffix.

Agreement Suffixes

There are 2 varieties of the overall agreement scheme: one is used for passive participles and passive infinitives while the other is used for passive finite forms and all active forms. In the 1st variety, the only suffixes permitted are the personal ones, with passive (or impersonal) being 0-marked. In the 2nd variety, all agreement suffixes are possible, with the active infinitive being 0-marked.

Agreement Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description Group
-xɪ -1S 1st person singular personal
-me -1P 1st person plural
-kɪ -2 2nd person
-lɪ -3S 3rd person singular
-lo -3P 3rd person plural
-aq -Imp Imperative (2nd person) special
-so -Ani animate active participle
-to -Ina inanimate active participle
-i -U passive (or impersonal)

Agreement Prefixes

In all cases, unspecified argument is 0-marked.

Agreement Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description Group
zi- 1S- 1st person singular animate
mi- 1P- 1st person plural
go- 2- 2nd person
dox- Rfx- reflexive (all persons)
ne- 3AS- 3rd person animate singular
fo- 3AP- 3rd person animate plural
si- Ani- animate passive participle
ben- Inf- passive infinitive
a- 3IS- 3rd person inanimate singular inanimate
u- 3IP- 3rd person inanimate plural
tɪ- Ina- inanimate passive participle

Nouns and Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

The genitives of pronouns have special forms used as possessive determiners:

Personal Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Genitive Tag Description
xim 1S xii 1SGen 1st person singular
mem 1P mai 1PGen 1st person plural
kim 2 kii 2Gen 2nd person
doxmi Rfx doxi RfxGen reflexive
dom 3AS lii 3SGen 3rd person animate singular
daa 3IS 3rd person inanimate singular
dos 3AP lee 3PGen 3rd person animate plural
doo 3IP 3rd person inanimate plural

Other Pronouns

Other Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Genitive Tag Description
cem CQ? cai CQGen content question, personal
caa CQ? content question, general
paarom Uni? paaree UniGen universal quantifier, personal
paaraa Uni? universal quantifier, general

Noun Inflections

Nouns are inflected for number (singular and plural and/or mass) in various ways.

Nouns may also be inflected for polarity. The suffixes are the same as for verbs and appear between the noun stem and any number suffix.

Noun cases are marked by postpositions, of which the animate noun vocative is an enclitic (Voc). E.g. tinkok singular and tinkorik plural.

Derivational Morphology

Demonstrative and Indefinite Pronouns

Each demonstrative pronoun consists of a demonstrative determiner (mii Prox, duu Medi, and laa Dist) followed by an indefinite pronoun.

Indefinite Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Description
ne AS indefinite animate singular
le IS indefinite inanimate singular
se AP indefinite animate plural
te IP indefinite inanimate plural

Superlatives and Ordinal Numbers

Superlatives are regularly derived from adjectival verbs using the suffix -ko (-Sup). They have both participial and noun forms Ordinal numbers are regularly derived from the corresponding cardinal numbers using the suffix -he (-Ord) except that "first" and "last" are superlatives of "early" and "late", respectively. These all have both participial and noun forms.

Superlative and Ordinal # Suffixes
Superlative Tag Ordinal # Tag Description
-ko -Sup -he -Ord participial
-kom -SupAS -hem -OrdAS animate singular
-kaa -SupIS -haa -OrdIS inanimate singular
-kos -SupAP -hes -OrdAP animate plural
-koo -SupIP -hau -OrdIP inanimate plural

page started: 2014.Jul.15 Tue
current date: 2014.Jul.18 Fri
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

Table of Contents