Hive2 –  A Constructed Language

Hive2 Morphology

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Morphology Overview

The word stem classes are bivalent verbs, univalent verbs, quantity words, particles, and names; only verbs are inflected. There's no agreement morphology.

All names consist of k', a sequence of syllables (wexcluding 'a), and 'a, in that order.


All verbs are inflected for polarity and aspect. Bivalent verb are also inflected for voice while scalar verbs are inflected for degree.


Morphological polarity is marked using the 2nd suffix slot. THe marking is either positive (unmarked), negative (-(h)an Neg), or affirmative (-(h)ohr Aff); the h-initial forms appear only after open syllables. Polar questions are handled by syntax.

Aspect and Action Type

Aspect may be marked by an suffix in the last slot; the aspects are shown in the following table:

Aspect Affixes
Suffix Tag Aspect
-goe -Hab Habitual-longterm
-mo -Exp Experiential
-cu -Prf Perfect-stative
-te -Aor Aoristic
-ni -Prg Progressive
-pa -Eve Eventual

Each verb stem has an implicit action type which determines what aspect is in effect when no aspect marker appears.

Action Types
Name Unmarked Aspect
Habitual-longterm Habitual-longterm
Static Perfect-stative
Dynamic Progressive
Telic Aoristic

Voice Inflections

A bivalent verb form is either direct or inverse:

Voice Affixes
Suffix Tag Name
hzo- Inv- Inverse


There are additional voice markers which derive univalent verb stems from bivalent verb roots; these are:

Voice Affixes
Suffix Tag Name
bi- Ant- Antipassive
ja- Pas- Passive
- Rfx- Reflexive

The causative Caus- and the applicative markers derive bivalent verb stems from univalent verb roots. The causative adds an agent argument and the applicatives add a patient argument. The applicative markers are:

Suffix Tag Name
- Ben- Benefactive
- Mal- Malefactive
- Com- Comitative
- Loc- Locative
- Ins- Instrumental ?

There is also an autocausative -Auto which applies to bivalent verb roots.

The thematic derivation -ef -Thm derives telic bivalent verbs from univalent verbs, with the root becomes the incorporated theme, such that the agent's referent provides its referent to the patient's referent.

The ordinal suffix -Ord derives ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers, except that the determiner ta Sup is used for "1st".

page started: 2017.May.13 Sat
current date: 2017.May.27 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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