The Sep10 Constructed Language

Sep10 Morphology

Word Classes

Words are classified as verbs, nouns, pronouns, determiners, quantity words, and various kinds of particles; verbs, nouns, and pronouns are inflected.


Roots end in single consonants (although vowel omission may result in clusters). Both nouns and verbs can be derived from roots by appending classifying suffixes, although there are also root-only nouns and even suffix-only nouns.

Verb Stems

Verbs are divided into adjectival verbs, other static verbs, and dynamic verbs. Verb stems are mostly formed according to this division, with adjectival stems ending in i, other static stems ending in e, and dynamic stems ending in a or o. For many verbs, the stem vowel by itself is appended to the root; for others, it's part of a -CV suffix appended to the root, such as -þi. In addition, verb stems can be derived from other words.

Note: In some forms of some verbs (such as those where the vowel is appended directly to a light root), the characteristic stem vowel is omitted. However, this doesn't affect the stem.


Inchoative verbs are the dynamic correspondents of static verbs (including adjectival). They're formed by changing the stem vowel from i and e to a and o, respectively, regardless of the stem vowel's origin. If the root is light, it's lengthened, e.g. tal (stem tali) becomes tála.


Superlatives are formed by placing the stem formant afe (Sup) after the stem of an adjectival verb. Any inchoative marking or derivation applies to this stem formant rather than the adjectival verb stem.

Verb Inflections

The inflectional structure of a verb is as follows:



Positive polarity is unmarked; otherwise, the polarity marker is infixed before the final stem vowel, e.g. lohþi, lohþúni, lohþessi.

Polarity Suffixes
Infix Tag Name
<ún> <Neg> negative
<ess> <Aff> affirmative


Aspect marking depends partly on whether the verb is static or dynamic.

Aspect Suffixes
Static Dynamic Tag Name
-0 -ki -Dur durative
-ba -0 -Ret retrospective
-nto -Pro prospective
-þme -Hab habitual

The vowel before -ba is lengthened.

Function and Role Inversion

The function determines whether the verb is an attributive form, a secondary predicate form, or a finite form. For a non-finite form, the role of its coreferential argument is also specified.

Final Verb Suffixes
Suffix Tag Name Aspect Enclitics Group
-0   Indicative yes Cpl, Tmp, Rel Finite
-i -Imp Imperative no Cpl
-ngo -Hyp Hypothetical no  
-s -Ptc Active Participle yes   Attributive
-l -PasPtc Passive Participle
-0 -Dep Active Depictive no   Secondary Predicate
-PasDep Passive Depictive
-r, -ar -Rsl Active Resultative
-çar -PasRsl Passive Resultative

The -i suffix forms a diphthong or long vowel with the preceding short vowel and the final syllable is stressed.
The 2nd form of the active resultative suffix appears after stems ending in i.

For a finite verb, the type of clause is specified.

Enclitic Conjunctions
Enclitic Tag Name
-de -Cpl complement clause
-ji -Tmp temporal adjunct clause
-ha -Rel relative clause

Noun and Pronoun Inflections

Each noun or pronoun has an implicit gender: either animate or inanimate. Nouns are inflected for number (singular and plural) and case, except for mass nouns, which don't have number. Pronouns are also inflected for case. The cases are absolutive or unmarked (-Abs), oblique or marked (-Obl), vocative (-Voc), genitive (-Gen), and partitive (-Par). The partitive of count nouns has only plural forms.

Noun Declensions

For convenience, nouns are arranged in 4 mostly similar declensions. The following tables of sample declensions show how noun stems are modified for each number and case as well as giving the endings. The stem modifications include omission of the final vowel, omission of an internal vowel, and lengthening of an internal vowel. There are stem changes involving consonants as well.

Nouns of the 1st declension have bases ending in non-high vowels, although this isn't always apparent from the citation form (the absolutive singular).

1st Declension
Case Singular Plural
-Abs miþko þobe bextol tol miþkox þóbex bextolax tólax
-Obl miþkon þóben bextolan tolmi miþkor þóber bextolar tólar
-Voc miþkoi þóbei bextolai tólai miþkol þóbel bextolal tólal
-Gen miþkos þóbes bextolas tolsu miþkoþa þobeþa bextolþa tolþa
-Par - miþkobe þobebe bextolbe tolbe

Nouns of the 2nd declension have bases ending in high vowels, although this also isn't always apparent from the citation form.

2nd Declension
Case Singular Plural
-Abs kwendi yagi tógan gan kwendia yagia tógamia gamia
-Obl kwendin yágin tógamin gammi kwendior yagior tógamior gamior
-Voc kwendí yágí tógamí gámí kwendiel yagiel tógamiel gamiel
-Gen kwendis yágis tógamis gansu kwendiþa yagiþa tóganþa ganþa
-Par - kwendibe yagibe tógambe gambe

Nouns of the 3rd declension have bases ending in the final feature '; note that the citation forms always end in vowels.

3rd Declension
Case Singular Plural
-Abs anse soru baha   ansega sorga báda  
-Obl ansémi sorúmi bahámi   ansegor sorgor bádor  
-Voc ansegi sorgi bádi   ansegel sorgel bádel  
-Gen ansessu sorussu bahassu   anseþþa soruþþa bahaþþa  
-Par - ansepe sorupe bahape  

Nouns of the 4th declension have bases ending in consonants.

4th Declension
Case Singular Plural
-Abs hánis løç wáxan   hánisa løça waxma  
-Obl hánismi løçmi waxammi   hánisor lǿçor waxmor  
-Voc hánisi løçi waxmi   hánisel lǿçel waxmel  
-Gen hánissu løçsu waxansu   hánisþa løçþa waxanþa  
-Par - hánispe løçpe waxampe  

Pronoun Declensions

Personal Pronoun Declension
  -Abs -Obl -Gen -Par  
1S fia - 1st person Singular
1P mor moa mobe 1st person Plural
2 kua kube 2nd person
Rfx - doa dobe Reflexive (all persons)
3TA tau tawa tabe 3rd person Topical Animate
3RA yau yawa yabe 3rd person Recent Animate
RPA sau sawa sabe Relative Pronoun Animate
CQA cau cawa cabe Content Question Animate
3TI tefo tena tebe 3rd person Topical Inanimate
3RI wefo wena webe 3rd person Recent Inanimate
RPI sefo sena sebe Relative Pronoun Inanimate
CQI cefo cena cebe Content Question Inanimate

The possessive pronouns are declined like nouns and are derived from the personal pronouns by replacing the final a of the genitive stem by assa for animate pronouns and by áli for inanimate ones.

The demonstrative pronouns are also declined like nouns and are formed by prefixing the corresponding determiners (proximate , medial doi, and distal lai) to sa (animate) and li (inanimate).

Existential and universal pronouns may be formed and declined like the demonstratives, using the corresponding determiners (er and san, respectively). However, there are also universal partitive forms of sa and li (see below).

Other Derivational Morphology

Universal Partitives

This suffix is -sana after consonant-stem count nouns, -sna after vowel-stem count nouns, and -san after all mass nouns. E.g. lassana, xekosna, and kaffesan. It's used for "all of" expressions, i.e. universal within a limited set. The count noun forms are declined as plural nouns, while the mass noun forms are declined as singular nouns.

Causatives and Autocausatives

Causative and autocausative verbs are dynamic and formed from static base verbs by appending one of the suffixes -ma and -to to either the verb root or the verb stem. The verb root is used if the base stem is formed with i or e and the verb stem is used otherwise. The suffix -ma is used if the base verb is adjectival and the suffix -to is used otherwise. E.g. gorme becomes goronto and henþi becomes henþima.

The difference between a causative and an autocausative depends on the base verb's argument structure; if it's univalent, the resulting verb is causative while if it's relational or transitive, the resulting verb is autocausative. In either case, the resulting verb is transitive.

page started: 2014.Sep.13 Sat
current date: 2014.Sep.21 Sun
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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