Sep08 –  A Constructed Language

Sep08 Other Morphology

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Noun Morphology

Each noun has an implicit gender: instrumental (I), locational (L) or everything else (E). There are also adverbial nouns.

Noun Stems and Forms

Morphologically, there are 2 kinds of nouns: root nouns and deverbal nouns. The structures for these are shown in the following tables:

Root Nouns
# Name Description
1 Incorporate noun root
2 Modifier verb root
3 Head Noun noun root (required)
4 Gender override
5 Number + Case vocative, genitive, or other

Deverbal Nouns
# Name Description
1 Incorporated noun root
2 Verb Stem (required)
3 Nominalizer (required)
4 Gender override
5 Number + Case vocative, genitive, or other

Verb Stems
# Name Description
1 Directional ?
2 Scalar Adverb ?
3 Secondary Verb Root (at least 1 required)
4 Primary Verb Root


The kinds of deverbal nouns using nominalizers are action nouns, participant noun, and superlatives.

Suffix Tag Name Gender
- -AgtN Agent Noun Everything else
- -PatN Patient Noun
- -ActN Action Noun
- -LocN Locational Noun Locational
- -InsN Instrument Noun Instrumental
- -Sup Superlative (indeterminate)

Number and Case

Noun number is either non-referential NR, plural P, or singular (unmarked). The noun cases are vocative, genitive, and unmarked.

Noun Suffixes

Sample Declensions
E (~C) E (~V) L (~V) I (~V) Tag
vor * pradi * hanjus niktos -E
vorko pradik hanjusko niktosko -EP
vori pradii hanjusi niktosi -ENR
vora pradira hanju * niktora -L
vorak pradirak hanjuk niktorak -LP
voree pradiree hanjoi niktoree -LNR
vortlu praditlu hanjutlu nikto * -I
vortluk praditluk hanjutluk niktok -IP
vortloi praditloi hanjutloi niktai -INR
vorma pradima hanjuma niktoma -Gen
vorkosh pradikosh hunjukosh niktokosh -PGen
vortuu pradituu hanjutuu niktotuu -NRGen
voru praduu (hanjuu) (niktaa) -Voc
vorkaa pradiku (hanjuku) (niktoku) -PVoc

Proper Nouns

The proper nouns include place names (locational), personal names, and names of groups of people. Personal names and place names lack number and are semantically animate. The cases are the same as for common nouns.

Noun Examples

tait- slange -?? -kosh
box- carry -AgtN -PGen
"boxcarriers" (plural genitive)

Pronouns and Determiners

Local and Reflexive Pronouns

The local and reflexive pronouns are inflected for number, gender, and case (although there are no vocative forms).

Local & Reflexive Pronouns
E L I Genitive Tag Description
bin bira bitlu bima 1S 1st person singular
bilo birak bitluk bilosh 1P 1st person plural
sulo surak sutluk sulosh NP inclusive person plural
gun gura gutlu guma 2S 2nd person singular
gulo gurak gutluk gulosh 2P 2nd person plural
jin jira jitlu jima Rfx reflexive
yan yara yatlu yama CMA coreference matrix agent?

Determiners and Related Pronouns

Determiners & Related Pronouns
Determiners Pronouns Tag Description
-Prs -Pst -Fut -Id -Def -E -L -I
- - - de - - - - - D0 non-anaphoric definite
sil - - sis - - sii sira sitlu D1 proximal demonstrative
- - - los - - lai lora lotlu D2 distal demonstrative
- tok tash - - tee tara tatlu D3 anaphoric
- pyok pyash pya pyaat pyani - pyara pyatlu Q interrogative
- inok inash in inut inni - inra intlu Ind indefinite
adil ajok ajash adi aduut adini - adira aditlu Uni universal quantifier
- gwak gwesh gwe gwaat gweni - gwera gwetlu Sat satisfactive
- - - ko - - kai kora kotlu Rel relative
- - - cho - - chai chora chotlu Cor correlative

Adverbs and Conjunctions

Certain postpositions combine with certain determiners to form adverbs and combine with the clause nominalizer Nom to form subordinating conjunctions. The following table shows these subordinating conjunctions along with the corresponding interrogative, anaphoric, and indefinite adverbs:

Adverbs & Conjunctions
Adverb Conjunction Name
Word Tag Word Tag Word Tag Word Tag
pyarut QRat tarut D3Rat inrut IndRat sherut NRat Reason
pyavan QFor tavan D3For invan IndFor shevan NFor Purpose
pyadoo QBy tadoo D3By indoo IndBy shedoo NBy Means

page started: 2018.Sep.19 Wed
current date: 2018.Sep.20 Thu
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

Table of Contents