Ampkohlaš –  A Constructed Language

Ampkohlaš Morphology

Note: The letters æ, œ, and y stand for the harmonizing vowels (low, mid, and high/zero, respectively); N stands for the homorganic nasal.

Word Component Orders

Independent Order

(Temp-) (Evid-) (Ctf-) Subj- (Obj-) [Align-] Root (-Modal) [-Aspect] (-Theme)

Imperative Order

(Temp-) Imp#- (Obj-) [Align-] Root [-Aspect] (-Theme)

Coreferential Order

Attributive forms are always coreferential, agreeing with the head noun. Secondary forms are always coreferential with one of the host verb's arguments, while adjunct forms are independent. Complement forms may be either coreferential or independent.

(Temp-) (Evid-) (Ctf-) Cor#- (Obj-) [Align-] Root (-Modal) [-Aspect] (-Theme)
(Temp-) (Evid-) (Ctf-) Subj- Cor#- [Align-] Root (-Modal) [-Aspect] (-Theme)
(Temp-) (Evid-) (Ctf-) Subj- (Obj-) [Align-] Root (-Modal) [-Aspect] -Cor#

Noun Order

(Poss-) appears only for possessed nouns, but is mandatory there, specifying the possessor. (Subj-) appears only on predicate forms, but is mandatory there. (-Number) appears only on non-predicate forms, but is mandatory there. The non-agreement markers are used only as needed. Note that the Subject-Object Hierarchy doesn't apply to nouns!

(Evid-) (Ctf-) (Subj-) (Poss-) Root (-Number)

A y will appear between an apparent final stem consonant and the number suffix.

Number Suffixes
Tag Suffix Name Application
-S -h Singular possessed count nouns
-P -i (= j) Plural all count nouns

Agreement Components

The pronominal subject and object prefixes appear according to the Subject-Object Hierarchy:

1# > 2# > 3T > R# > 3S > 3P > 3I > 3O > 3N > 0
1NP   > 3T > R# > 3S > 3P > 3I > 3O > 3N > 0
2M# > 1# > 3T   > 3S > 3P > 3I > 3O > 3N > 0
1HP   > 3T   > 3S > 3P > 3I > 3O > 3N > 0

The pronominal theme suffix can only be inanimate (-3T?, -3I, -3O, -3N, or -RI).

Personal Pronominals
Animate Inanimate Description
Singular Plural
Tag Affix Tag Affix Tag Affixes
1S- py- 1XP- pæ- - 1st person
- 1NP- mæ- 1st person Inclusive
1HP- næ- 1st person Hortative
2S- ky- 2P- kæ- 2nd person
2MS- sy- 2MP- sæ- 2nd person Imperative
3S- fy- 3P- fæ- 3I- šy- -šy 3rd person
RS- ty- RP- dæ- RI- čæ- -čæ Coreferential

Other 3rd Person Pronominals
Tag Affix Description
3T- žœ- -žœ 3rd person Topical
3O- jæ- -jæ 3rd person Old information phrase
3N- xy- -xy 3rd person New information phrase
Ind- (hœ-) 0 Impersonal

Subject-Object Alignment

Basically monovalent verbs are not marked for alignment. Bi- and tri-valent verbs forms with direct alignment are also unmarked while those with inverse alignment take the inverse prefix. Forms with object omission are also unmarked while passive forms take the inverse prefix. A single prefix is used for both reciprocal and reflexive alignments, depending on whether an object appears or not.

Subject-Object Alignment
Prefix Full Valence Decreased Monovalent
Tag Usage Tag Usage Tag Usage
0 Dir. Direct Agt. Agentive Dir. Direct
læ- Inv- Inverse Pat- Patientive -
cœ- Rcp- Reciprocal Rfx- Reflexive

TAM Components

The TAM components are modality (-Modal), aspect [-Aspect], evidentiality (Evid-), and temporal distance (Temp-).


Modality here (limited to deontic and potential modalities) may be considered a form of regular derivation.

Tag Suffix Name Type
-Obl - Obligation deontic
-Prm - Permission deontic
-Nec - Necessity potential
-Cap - Capability potential


Aspect here includes both inflection and regular derivation.

Tag Suffix Name Type Bases
.Stat 0 Stative direct static, mixed
-Inch - Inchoative derived static, mixed
-Term - Terminative derived static, mixed
.Aor 0 Aoristic direct dynamic
-Prg - Progressive direct dynamic
-Ret -kœ Retrospective indirect dynamic, mixed
-Pro -sœ Prospective indirect dynamic, mixed
-Hab - Habitual indirect dynamic, mixed


Forms not indicated as future are past or present.

Tag Prefix Name Type Bases
Prt. 0 Participant direct limited person
Wit- bœ- Witness direct other person
Hrs- uæ- Hearsay indirect any
Ded- - Deductive indirect any
Pos- - Possibility indirect any
Fut- čœ- Future indirect all

Temporal Distance

The temporal distance prefixes specify how far in the past or future the situation takes place. They are used on absolute verbs as past, future, or contrafactual tense markers. They might also be used with relative verbs in the retrospective or prospective for relative temporal distance. Note that past or future time is specified by other means. The lack of any temporal distance prefix on an absolute verb indicates present time.

Temporal Distance
Tag Prefix Usage with Past Usage with Future Time
Thn- æ- "at that time" "at that time" absolute
Now- œs- "just now" "right now"
Prx- æN- "recently" "soon"
Dst- gœl- "not so recently" "not so soon"
Leg- æmmœ- (legendary) -
Imm- œsæ- "right before" "just after" relative
0 0 (unspecified) (unspecified)
Rem- gœlæ- "long before" "long after"

page started: 2010.Jul.03 Sat
current date: 2010.Jul.06 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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