Oct26 –  A Constructed Language

Oct26 Inflectional Morphology

Predicate Morphology

Predicate morphology comes in 2 parts: the verb or participle* and the satellite, the latter consisting of polarity, tense, and pronominal subject marking.

* All verb forms except for impersonal ones and those forms being used as imperatives are essentially participles. However, the term verb will mostly be used.

Verb Classes

Verbs are inflected for aspect, mood, and grammatical voice, marked by suffixes. The aspects and moods are aoristic (Aor), durative (Dur), perfect (Ret), prospective (Pro), hypothetical (Hyp), and contrafactual (Ctf). For dynamic verbs, the aoristic is 0-marked while for static verb, the durative is 0-marked. The grammatical voices are active (Act), passive (Pas), receptive (Rcp), locational (Loc), and impersonal (Ips); there's also an action nominal (AN). For trivalent, transitive, perceptive, and agentive verbs, the 0-marked voice is active while for spatial and patientive verbs (including adjectives), the 0-marked voice is passive. This is summarized in the following table:

Verb Classes
Table Class 0-marked Others
1 trivalent Aor Act Loc, Ips, Pas, Rcp
1 transitive Aor Act Loc, Ips, Pas, Rcp
1 agentive Aor Act Loc, Ips, Rcp
2 perceptive Dur Act Loc, Ips, Pas
3 spatial Dur Pas Loc, Ips
3 patientive Dur Pas Loc, Ips

Verb Suffixes

Here are the 3 verb suffix tables referred to above, which apply to consonant-stem verbs. A verb may have 2 stems, which are referred to in the tables (1- and 2-). An entry with *- uses either stem 1 or stem 2, depending on the verb. The stem information is provided in the vocabulary.

Verb Suffixes, Table 1, Consonant Stems
  -Act -Pas -Loc -Rcp -AN -Ips
-Aor 1-0 2-a 1-xo 2-ik 2-on 2-onos
-Dur 2-e 2-au 2-eš 2-aik 2-en 2-enos
-Ret 1-ti 1-cá 1-tiš 1-tík 1-tin 1-tinos
-Pro *-(o)go *-(o)ga *-(o)gox *-(o)žik *-(o)gon *-(o)gonos
-Hyp 1-su 1-hwá 1-sux 1-hwík 1-sun 1-sunos
-Ctf 2-as 2-asa 2-asxo 2-asik 2-ason 2-asnos

Verb Suffixes, Table 2, Consonant Stems
  -Act -Pas -Loc -Rcp -AN -Ips
-Aor 2-or 1-ra 1-rox 1-rik 1-ron 1-ronos
-Dur 1-0 2-a 1-xo 2-ik 2-on 2-onos
-Ret 1-ti 1-cá 1-tiš 1-tík 1-tin 1-tinos
-Pro *-(o)go *-(o)ga *-(o)gox *-(o)žik *-(o)gon *-(o)gonos
-Hyp 1-su 1-hwá 1-sux 1-hwík 1-sun 1-sunos
-Ctf 2-as 2-asa 2-asxo 2-asik 2-ason 2-asnos

Verb Suffixes, Table 3, Consonant Stems
  -Pas -Loc -AN -Ips
-Aor 2-or 1-rox 1-ron 1-ronos
-Dur 1-0 1-xo 2-on 2-onos
-Ret 1-ti 1-tiš 1-tin 1-tinos
-Pro *-(o)go *-(o)gox *-(o)gon *-(o)gonos
-Hyp 1-su 1-sux 1-sun 1-sunos
-Ctf 2-as 2-asxo 2-ason 2-asnos

Note: the ending or becomes ro after a stem ending in r and the ending on becomes no after a stem ending in n.

There are 4 types of vowel-stem verbs: a-stems, e-stems, i-stems, and o-stems. In the 1st 3 cases, the stem vowel may combine with the suffix vowel. However, o-stems delete the stem vowel before a suffix vowel and can therefore use the consonant-stem tables above.

Verb Suffixes, Table 2, e-stems
  -Act -Pas -Loc -Rcp -AN -Ips
-Aor er era erox erik eron ernos
-Dur e au aik en enos
-Ret eti ecá etiš etík etin etinos
-Pro ego ega egox ežik egon egonos
-Hyp esu ehwá esux ehwík esun esunos
-Ctf aus ausa ausxo ausik auson ausnos

Verb Suffixes, Table 3, a-stems
  -Pas -Loc -AN -Ips
-Aor ar arox aron arnos
-Dur a ax an anos
-Ret ati atiš atin atinos
-Pro ago agox agon agonos
-Hyp asu asux asun asunos
-Ctf ás ásxo áson ásnos

Verb Suffixes, Table 3, i-stems
  -Pas -Loc -AN -Ips
-Aor ir irox iron irnos
-Dur i in inos
-Ret iti itiš itin itinos
-Pro igo igox igon igonos
-Hyp isu isux isun isunos
-Ctf (j)ás (j)ásxo (j)áson (j)ásnos

Verb Prefixes

There are 2 kinds of verb prefixes: argument prefixes and adverbial prefixes, appearing in that order.

The argument prefixes normally replace the accusative and dative pronouns. The same set of prefixes is used for both cases. Both can appear on the same verb provided that the accusative prefix is the inanimate 3rd person 3I and the dative prefix isn't. When both appear, the dative prefix is first.

Argument Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description
mi- 1S- 1st person singular
má- 1P- 1st person plural
si- 2- 2nd person
li- Rfx- reflexive
to- 3A- 3rd person animate
řo- 3I- 3rd person inanimate

The adverbial prefixes appear only along with the locational voice suffix. They correspond to some of the cases and mark the role of the subject. When the locational voice suffix appears without any adverbial prefix, the role is location.

Adverbial Prefixes
Prefix Tag Subject Role Corresponds To
ku- Des- destination allative
be- Org- origin or source ablative
ni- Rte- route perlative

Polarity, Tense, and Subject Pronouns

The satellite word consists of the polarity marker prefixed to the tense marker. Polarity is positive (Pos-, 0-marked), negative (Neg-), or affirmative (Aff-). Tense is present (Prs, 0-marked), past (Pst), or future (Fut). There are no enclitic subject pronouns for the 3rd person except for SS. When both polarity and tense are 0-marked (positive present), the subject pronominals are enclitic to the verb; otherwise, they're enclitic to the satellite.

Satellite Forms
  Prs Pst Fut
Pos- 0 a en
Neg- fé, foř fořa fořen
Aff- bok boka bočen

Enclitic Subject Pronouns
  =1S =1P =2 =SS
V-stems 1=m 1=ma 1=s 1=tu
W-stems 2=om 1=ma 1=s 1=tu
C-stems 2=om 1=ma 1=so 1=tu

Note: the form om becomes mo after a stem ending in m.

Imperative Mood

The imperative mood lacks its own forms, but is constructed as a aoristic (and usually active) verb with no satellite but polarity. This form is construed as imperative only in a main clause; in a subordinate clause, this would be a cotemporal indicative predicate.

Impersonal Verbs

Some verbs never have subjects (including implied subjects); these are called impersonal verbs. Note that these are distinct from impersonal forms of normal verbs.

Argument Morphology

Nouns have determiner and case suffixes and may have possessor, demonstrative, quantifier, or content question prefixes. All these inflections apply only to the head noun of the phrase; appositive nouns not inflected. Nouns also have gender: each noun is either animate or inanimate.

Determiners, Cases, and Stems

The determiners are definite (Def), specific indefinite singular (SIS), specific indefinite plural (SIP), and non-referential or other indefinite (NR, 0-marked). The cases are nominative-accusative (N/A, 0-marked), genitive (Gen), instrumental (Ins), dative (Dat), adverbial (Adv), allative (All), ablative (Abl), and perlative (Per).

There are 3 declensions, according to the sending of the noun stem. These are called V-stems for final short vowels, W-stems for final long vowels and diphthongs, and C-stems for final consonants. V-stem nouns have 3 versions of the stem, due to the suffix vowel being fused with the stem vowel. W-stem nouns have 2 versions of the stem, the 2nd being used before vowel-initial suffixes. C-stem nouns may also have 2 versions of the stem. The 2nd version of each relevent C-stem or W-stem noun will be given in the vocabulary. The 3 versions of V-stem nouns are shown in the following table:

V-Stem Vowel Combinations
Stem # Stem Ending
1 i e a o u
2 í ai oi é (w)í
3 (j)ú eu au ó ú

The (w) and the (j) may interract with the consonant immediately preceding the stem vowel.

Noun Suffixes

Here are the 3 noun suffix tables referred to above. Note that the definite endings are the same for all 3 declensions. The stems marked * in the C-stem table are the same as either 1 or 2, depending on the final consonant.

Noun Suffixes, V-stems
  -NR -Def -SIS -SIP
-N/A 1-0 1-ta 2-0 1-r
-Gen 1-k 1-tak 2-k 1-rok
-Ins 3-0 1-tau 1-řú 1-ru
-Dat 2-s 1-tois 1-řís 1-ris
-Adv 1-x 1-tax 2-š 1-rox
-All 1-kux 1-takux 2-kux 1-rkux
-Abl 1-beš 1-tabeš 2-beš 1-rbeš
-Per 1-niš 1-taniš 2-niš 1-rniš

Noun Suffixes, W-stems
  -NR -Def -SIS -SIP
-N/A 1-0 1-ta 2-í 2-or
-Gen 1-k 1-tak 2-ík 1-rok
-Ins 2-ú 1-tau 1-řú 1-ru
-Dat 2-ís 1-tois 1-řís 1-ris
-Adv 1-x/š 1-tax 2-íš 1-rox
-All 1-kux 1-takux 2-íkux 2-orkux
-Abl 1-beš 1-tabeš 2-íbeš 2-orbeš
-Per 1-niš 1-taniš 2-íniš 2-orniš

Noun Suffixes, C-stems
  -NR -Def -SIS -SIP
-N/A 1-0 1-ta 2-i 2-or
-Gen 1-ko 1-tak 2-ik *-rok
-Ins 2-u 1-tau 2-(j)ú *-ru
-Dat 2-is 1-tois 2-ís *-ris
-Adv 1-xo 1-tax 2-iš *-rox
-All 1-kux 1-takux 2-ikux 2-orkux
-Abl *-(o)beš 1-tabeš 2-ibeš 2-orbeš
-Per 1-niš 1-taniš 2-iniš 2-orniš

There are some additional C-stem noun stem alterations; before any -SIS or -NR-Dat ending, final k, g, and x regularly become č, ž, and š, respectively.

Vocative Suffix

The vocative suffix -sá (-Voc) is added to nouns without any other suffixes.

Noun Prefixes

Each prefix can occur only with a particular set of determiners, as listed in the following table:

Noun Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description Group Determiner
mi- 1S- 1st person singular possessive -Def
má- 1P- 1st person plural
si- 2- 2nd person
li- Rfx- reflexive
to- 3A- 3rd person animate
řo- 3I- 3rd person inanimate
ži- Prox- proximal demonstrative -SIS, -SIP
gu- Medi- medial
la- Dist- distal
če- CQ- content question -NR
kal- Uni- universal quantifier -NR
or- Exi- existential
fir- Nul- nullar

Personal Pronouns

The following personal pronouns are the free forms; the bound forms are given elsewhere. RP is the relative clause role-recovery pronoun.

Personal Pronouns
  1S 1P 2 Rfx 3A 3I RP
-N/A - -
-Gen mok mák sok lok ták ték duk
-Ins mávo távo tévo
-Dat més mářos sés lés tářos - zís
-Adv mox máx sox lox táx téš dux
-All mokux mákux sokux lokux tákux tékux dukux
-Abl mobeš mábeš sobeš lobeš tábeš tébeš dubeš
-Per moniš mániš soniš loniš tániš téniš duniš

Possessive Pronouns

Each personal pronoun has a corresponding possessive pronoun; these all distinguish gender and are declined like definite nouns. The stems are shown in the following table:

Possessive Pronoun Stems
  1S 1P 2 Rfx 3A 3I
Animate máho řá
Inanimate min máno sin lin ton řon

Other Pronouns

The demonstrative, quantifier, and content question prefixes have corresponding pronouns, all of which distinguish gender and inflect for case. The demonstrative pronouns are also inflected for number. The content question pronouns take the same endings as the corresponding 3rd person pronouns while the others are declined like nouns. The quantifiers are limited to the NR column of the noun suffix tables and the demonstratives are limited to the SIS and SIP columns.

Other Pronoun Stems
  CQ Prox Medi Dist Uni Exi Nul
Animate čæ žého góho láho kalho orho firho
Inanimate čai žinno gunno lanno kalno orno firno

Noun-based Action Nominals

Since noun phrases can also be predicates, action nominals based on nouns and pronouns exist. These are formed by adding -no (AN) to the nominative noun or pronoun. The action nominal can then be declined like other V-stem nouns.

page started: 2013.Oct.28 Mon
current date: 2013.Nov.09 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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