Oct26 –  A Constructed Language

Oct26 Derivational Morphology

Vowel Combinations

Generally speaking, whenever a component ending in o is followed by a component beginning with any vowel, the o is deleted. If the 1st component ends in some other vowel, the pair of vowels either combine or a hiatal consonant (such as h) is inserted between them (this is always the case when the 2nd vowel is a long vowel or diphthong). The vowel combinations are as follows:

  i e a o u
i í (j)æ (j)á (j)ó (j)ú
e ai æ au eu eu
a oi ai á á au
u (w)í (w)æ (w)á (w)é ú

Regular Adjectival Derivations

The comparative and superlative degrees of an adjective are both formed by adding the suffix -um (-Cpr), which is the same as the ordinal number suffix. The hiatal consonant is used if needed. When used as a phrase-final superlative, the definite determiner -ta (-Def) is appended.

The equative degree of an adjective is formed by adding the suffix -it (-Equ). The hiatal consonant is used if needed.

bon "many" bonum "more" bonit "as many"
kurbo "black" kurbum "blacker" kurbit "as black"
gurka "thirsty" gurkahum "thirstier" gurkahit "as thirsty"

Some Other Derivations

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner are formed by adding -adeš to verbs (especially certain adjectival verbs). The initial a of the suffix combines with any final stem vowel.

xaskádeš "angrily"

Derived Verbs

The suffix -pe produces verbs of perception from univalent verbs, making the original subject the direct object and adding a perceiver subject. It applies lexically to the modals vet, dan, pal, and fax. It also applies regularly to sense-related adjectival verbs, such as zæs "hot".

The suffix -fa produces univalent adjectival verbs from nouns; these are fairly regular, but may be listed in the vocabulary.

The suffix -ka produces adjectival verbs from dynamic verbs; these are lexical.

The suffix -ra also produces univalent adjectival verbs from nouns; these are lexical.

The suffix -(o)l produces adjectival verbs from nouns; these are lexical. It also produces causative verbs from verb bases; these are regular. Any verb except a trivalent verb may have a derived causative, since the causative increases the valence by 1. The new argument has the agent role; any original agent is treated as a recipient.

The suffix -(o)k produces dynamic verbs from nouns; these are lexical.

The suffix -(o)t produces dynamic verbs from particles etc; these are lexical. It also produces autocausative verbs from perceptive verb; these are regular, but listed in the vocabulary.

Derived Nouns

Derivation of nouns is mostly lexical. There are a number of suffixes, such as -xa, which produces product nominals from verb roots.


Cardinal Numbers

The 2nd form (if any) in an entry appears before vowel-initial suffixes.

Cardinal Numbers
# Word # Word # Word # Word
1 lai, leř- 10 100 sap? 1000 pósap?
2 řak 20 řakpu 200 řaksap? 2000 řakpusap?
3 sit 30 sitpu 300 sitcap? 3000 sitpusap?
4 tux 40 tuxpu 400 tuxsap? 4000 tuxpusap?
5 reš 50 rešpu 500 rešcap? 5000 rešpusap?
6 ten 60 tempu 600 tencap? 6000 tempusap?
7 mon 70 mompu 700 moncap? 7000 mompusap?
8 vik 80 vikpu 800 viksap? 8000 vikpusap?
9 nar 90 narpu 900 narsap? 9000 narpusap?

In constructing compound numbers, higher values precede lower ones, e.g. řakpulai = 21. Numbers below 100 are used as factors to sap, e.g. sitputuxsap rešputen = 3456.

Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are formed regularly from the corresponding cardinal numbers by adding the suffix -um (-Ord). The hiatal consonant is used if needed. When inflected, they take the definite determiner -ta (-Def).

Fractional Numbers

Country, Language, and Religion

The animate noun suffix -áho and the inanimate noun suffix -onno are also used, besides the ones given below. Derivational vowels between the base and the suffix are usually deleted.


The names of regions, countries, and districts are inanimate nouns and usually end in -a.


Language names are actually static univalent verbs. They all end in -i (possibly combined with a stem vowel). Languages of specific regions, countries, or districts may retain the final -a of the stem, if present.

októbriš kurso čú? "Do you speak Oktobri?"


The names of religions and philosophies are inanimate nouns ending in -ismo. Practitioners or believers are referred to using static univalent verbs ending in -isto.


All compound words are Modifier-Head.

Adverbial Compounds

Some verb roots can regularly take adverbial prefixes to denote spatial characteristics. The relevent adverbial prefixes are:

  1. vertical:
  2. horizontal:
  3. relative to person's path:

The relevent verb roots are:

  1. distance from end to end:
  2. distance away from here:

The possible combinations of the prefixes and roots are A1, A2, B1, and C2. Some motion verbs such as (h)un "go" can also take adverbial prefixes, e.g. pahun "ascend" and barun "turn right".

page started: 2013.Oct.31 Thu
current date: 2013.Nov.09 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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