November 2010 Conlang

Nov10 Inflectional Morphology

Verb Suffixes

Aspects and Stems

The stem consists of the root, any derivational affixes, and the aspect suffix. To the stem are added any mood and tense suffix, any evidential suffix, and any subject suffix.

Aspects and Stems
Tag Aspect Stem 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
.Aor Aoristic   CVXC i CVXH   CVX   CVXH  
Pre-Evidential CVXC i CVXH   CVX i CVXH  
Singular CVXC [2] CVXC [2] CVX [3] CVXH [3]
-Prg Progressive   CVXC ur[2] CVXC ur[2] CVX ur[2] CVXH r[2]
Pre-Evidential CVXC u CVXC u CVX u CVXH ru
-Ret Retrospective   CVXC a[1] CVXC a[1] CVX a[1] CVXH a[1]
-Pro Prospective   CVXC ipa[1] CVXH pa[1] CVX pa[1] CVXH pa[1]
For [1], [2], and [3], see Subject Person and Number.

Moods, Tenses, and Evidentials

The first suffix position after the stem determines the mood (indicative or subjunctive) and tense (past, present, or future) if indicative. If no such suffix appears, the verb is past indicative if the stem is aoristic and present indicative otherwise.

Mood and Tense Suffixes
Tag Suffix Description
-Pst -ta[1] indicative past
-Fut -qu[1] indicative future
-Sub -bi[1] subjunctive

The second suffix position after the stem determines the evidentiality and/or the epistemic modality.

Evidential Suffixes
Tag Suffix Description
-Hrs -s[3] hearsay
-Inf -n[3] inferential
-Pos -?[3] epistemic possibility

Subject Person and Number

When personal, the subject suffix distinguishes person and number and, in the 1st person plural, clusivity. The other subject suffixes are the host verb argument coreference markers and the verbal noun marker.

Subject Person and Number
Singular Plural Description
Tag [1] [2] [3] Tag (all)
-1S -i -i -i -1XP -ja 1st person (exclusive)
-1NP -ma 1st person (inclusive)
-2S -l -il -li -2P -la 2nd person
-3S -x -ix -hi -3P -ha 3rd person
- -VN -su verbal noun
-HS -s -is -si - coreference host subject
-HO -n -in -ni - coreference host object

Verb Prefixes

Object Person and Number

Noun Suffixes

The noun suffixes are identical to the coreferential verb subject suffixes. The host subject suffix (-HS) acts like a nominative case marker and the host object suffix (-HO) acts like an accusative case marker. The suffixless forms act as adpositional case forms.

Noun Prefixes

page started: 2010.Nov.14 Sun
current date: 2010.Nov.15 Mon
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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