Niwa Constructed Language

Niwa Syntax


A phrase is either a noun phrase or a pronoun. The general order of components in a noun phrase is

determiner quantifier noun verbal-noun-modifiers relative-clause

A noun phrase lacking both determiner and quantifier may be considered to be definite. Verbal noun modifiers appear after the noun and agree with it in animacy and number, these being determined by the noun's class.


The general order of components in a clause is

conjunction tense evidential subject polarity verb object(s) adjuncts.

Most clauses lack one or more of these components, the verb being the only component required by all clauses.

The polarity component consists of the negative particle way or its absence.

The number of objects (up to 2) is limited by the valence of the verb. The 2nd object, if specified, is always 3rd person inanimate. While the order of enclitic pronouns is fixed, noun phrase objects can appear in either order. Definite noun phrases tend to appear first unless contrastively focused.

Initial Clauses

An initial clause begins with a tense particle. An evidential appears unless the sentence is a command, the sentence is a question, or the speaker is a participant. A subject phrase appears unless the verb is impersonal.

Conjunct Clauses

A conjunct clause begins with one of the coordinating conjunctions. The tense and the subject are present only if different from the preceding initial or conjunct clause.

Adjunct Clauses

An adjunct clause begins with the conjunction e. The subject is omitted if the same as that of the containing clause, which may be an initial, conjunct, complement, or relative clause. The adjunct clause typically specifies the time or circumstances of that clause.

Complement Clauses

The subject is omitted if the same as that of the containing clause.

Relative Clauses

Instead of a conjunction, a relative clause begins with an agreement marker, which agrees with the head noun in animacy and number. A trace pronoun occurs in place of the head noun within the relative clause.

Tense and Aspect

The absolute present tense and perfective aspect never occur in same the clause. Progressive aspect and indefinite past or future normally don't occur in the same clause. Habitual aspect and definite past or future normally don't occur in the same clause.

page started: 2010.Dec.13 Mon
current date: 2010.Dec.13 Mon
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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