Mar22 –  A Constructed Language

Mar22 Stem Formation

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Noun Stem Formation

Noun stems end in either noun roots or nominalizing morphemes.

Compound Nouns

Most compound nouns are asymmetrical, with the modifier preceding the head. There are a large number of semantic classes according to the implied relationship between the head and the modifier. There may also be some symmetrical compound nouns.

Paired Asymmetrical Compounds
Modifier Head Example Inverse
set element - row house - house row
entity detail - car tire - apple pie
source product - beeswax - coal mine
cause effect - water mark - tear gas
action object - game animal - deer hunting
activity implement - tennis ball - table tennis
inhabitant location - family land - table lamp
event time - vacation day - spring festival
substance container - tea cup - cup of tea
product producer - silkworm - cow's milk
sold entity where available - sushi bar - grocery sushi
material artifact - stone lion - building stone
protector danger - mask gas? - gas mask
possessor possessum - governor's mansion - ???

Other Asymmetrical Compounds
Modifier Head Example
species genus - pine tree
selector entity - soldier ant
resemblance entity - cherry bomb
override entity - space ship
whole analogous part - tooth root
energy source instrument - wind mill
purpose instrument - lamp shade
object instrument - pepper stone
energy source instrument - electric lamp
application locus substance - tooth paste

Verb Nominalizations

There are 2 suffixes which form action nouns from verb stems: -AN1 and -AN2: both kinds of action nouns are inanimate. The possessor of an AN1 noun has the patient role while the possessor of an AN2 noun has the agent role. In the case of scalar verb stems, the possessor of AN1 is also the subject of comparison.

Participant nouns are formed by appending a nominalizer to the verb stem; the most common ones are shown in the following table:

Participant Noun Suffixes
Suffix Tag Animacy Description
- PatA Animate patient
- PatI Inanimate patient
- Agent Animate agent
- Instr Inanimate instrument
- Locat Inanimate location
- - - -

Superlatives are nouns regularly derived from scalar verb stems by appending the suffix -ta -Sup. They are inflected for number and case and distinguish animacy in the absolutive.

Verb Stem Formation

Verb stems end in either verb roots or derivational morphemes.

When a relational root is combined with one of locomotion, the relational appears last. The perlative root "pass" may appear in between.

Locational Verbs

The locational verbs, which are static, are shown in the following table:

Locational Verbs
Word Tag Description Glosses
žuusa ProxL proximal "here"
toosa MediL medial "there"
laasa DistL distal "yonder"
čaasa QL interrogative "where"


The autocausative suffix -ki -Auto derives dynamic verbs from static ones. However, its primary purpose is to modify the argument structure, making the agent the cause of its own state. When applied to patient-oriented verbs, such as the scalars and relational verbs, this is like using a reflexive in that no patient can be expressed (unless an applicative is also used). But when applied to agent-oriented verbs, such as perception and mental state verbs, the original patient is retained; these are often lexical derivations, e.g. hos "hear" becoming hoxki "listen".

Other Suffixes

The completive suffix -to -Cmpt derives telic verbs from non-telic ones (usually dynamic).


Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal numbers are quantity words:

Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial
1 yav· 10 yaad· 100 yavotk· 1000 yavishn·
2 soy· 20 soid· 200 soyotk· 2000 soyishn·
3 duz· 30 duzd· 300 duzotk· 3000 duzishn·
4 nan· 40 nand· 400 nanotk· 4000 nanishn·
5 rey· 50 reed· 500 reyotk· 5000 reyishn·
6 shil· 60 shild· 600 shilotk· 6000 shilishn·
7 ther· 70 therd· 700 therotk· 7000 therishn·
8 vim· 80 vind· 800 vimotk· 8000 vimishn·
9 khov· 90 khood· 900 khovotk· 9000 khovishn·

Compound numbers are formed highest order to lowest order all but the last number taking the aggregate final -an -Agg, e.g. shilotkan nandan soyo "642". Zero is pukh·.

Fractional Numbers

Fractional numbers represent denominators formed from cardinal numbers. They're formed by appending the derivational medial -asht -Den to the stem of the last part of the number, e.g. yavotkashto "1%".

Distributive Numbers

Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are nouns regularly derived from cardinal number stems by appending the suffix -ta -Sup. They are inflected for number and case and distinguish animacy in the absolutive.

page started: 2017.Mar.26 Sun
current date: 2017.Mar.28 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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