Mar22 –  A Constructed Language

Mar22 Phonology and Orthography

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Letters and Sounds

The tables show the relevent phonetic symbols (in IPA) with the corresponding orthographic (romanization) symbols. The 29 letters used are:
a æ b c č d e è f g h i k l m n ň o p r s š t u w y z ž 'j q v x aren't used.
Digraphs are shown in the appropriate subsection.

Note: the long low-mid vowel has been eliminated!

In the following tables, an asterisk * indicates that the letter is used for more than one sound.

Vowel Qualities

There are 6 short vowels, 6 long vowels, and 3 diphthongs. The diphthongs are: [ɔi] oi, [ai] ai, and [au] au. There are no other vowel sequences.

  front central back
high i iː i ii - - - u uː u uu
high-mid - e eː e ee - - - o oː o oo -
low-mid - ɛ ɛː è æ - - -
low - - ɑ ɑː a aa -

Consonant Qualities

There are 24 consonant phonemes using 26 phones.

  labial coronal dorsal guttural
nasal voiced m m - - n n* - ɲ ň ŋ n* - -
stop voiceless p - - t - - k kʷʰ kw - ʔ '
ejective p' b - - t' d - - k' g - -
voiced b - - d - - g gw - -
affricate voiceless - t͡ɬ c - t͡ʃ č - -
voiced - - d͡ʒ ž - -
fricative voiceless ɸ f - ɬ z s s ʃ š ç ç x h - -
rhotic voiced - - ɾ r r - - -
vocoid voiced - - l l - j y - w w - -


The ejective allophones appear in codas.



The following rhyme types appear:

light: -V
heavy: -Vː, -VV, -VC
extraheavy: -VːC, -VVC, -VCC


The stress rules for words of 3 or more syllables are as follows:

The stress rules for words of 2 syllables are as follows:

Words of 1 syllable are unstressed if light and stressed otherwise.


Vowel Alternations

Long vowels and diphthongs in open syllables alternate with sequences of short vowels + consonants, the latter appearing before a vowel. The following table shows the possible alternations.

Vowel Alternations
Vː, VV ii ee au aa oo uu
VC iy ey ew aw ow uw

Also, i and u alternate with y and w, respectively.

Consonant Alternations

Coda nasals alternate according to the following non-glottal onset: m appears before p, b, and m, while n appears otherwise.

The consonants y, w, and l may combine with a preceding consonant to form a single consonant or onset cluster:

Consonant Alternations
base m n p t k ' b d g s h r l
base + w m nw? p t kw 'w b d gw s f ur ul
base + y my ň py č ky 'y by ž gy š ç ir il
base + l - - pl z kl - bl c gl - - - -

page started: 2017.Mar.26 Sun
current date: 2017.Mar.28 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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