MNCL6 –  A Constructed Language

MNCL6 Morphology

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Morphology Overview

Person and Number Terminology

The following non-standard terminology is used here:

Word Classification

The syntactical word classes are mostly decoupled from the lexical word classes. However, for some words (such as quantity words and pronominals), the lexical class is syntactically significant.

The main syntactical word classes are finite forms, attributives, case-marked forms, and particles; these classes are determined by the ending of the word, rather than by the roots or the derivational morphemes (which determine the lexical and morphological word classes).

The lexical word classes are verbs, quantity words, nouns, pronominals, and particles. These classes apply to both roots and derived stems, so the morphological classes are basically the same as the lexical ones.

Verbs include all the words that are scalar, relational, or both. Verbs are static or dynamic and univalent, bivalent, or trivalent. Bivalent verbs are either direct, inverse, or relational.

All nouns are essentially bivalent, being able to take possessors. The morphological difference between verbs and nouns is that nouns can't be inflected for aspect or tense. Nouns are count or mass, common or proper, and animate or inanimate, although these distinctions aren't morphologically significant.

Morpheme Types

A word is constructed from initial, medial, and final morphemes. The initial morphemes include the roots of nouns, verbs, and quantity words and the pronominals. One of the pronominals is null; otherwise, initial morphemes are non-zero. The final morphemes classify the word syntactically and are always non-zero except with a limited set of roots and particles. The medial morphemes, of which there may be any number, are derivational or inflectional.

A final morpheme is either a vowel V or a vowel + a consonant VC. Medial morphemes are all VC, except for a very small set of verb inflections, which are C. Initial morphemes all end in a consonant ~C; noun roots may end in 2 consonants, which must be preceded by a vowel ~VCC.

Final Morphemes

The final morphemes are shown in the following table:

Final Morphemes
Final Tag Name Group
special word limited
-e -Fin Finite other
-o -Att Attributive
-an -Agg Aggregative
-el -Alt Alternative
-au -Com Combining
-a -Abs Absolutive cases
-i -Erg Ergative
-okh -Dat Dative
-ak -Abl Ablative
-is -Ins Instrumental
-ai -Loc Locative
-u -Gen Genitive
-or -Par Partitive
-ee -Voc Vocative


The pronominals are iniital morphemes functioning as pronouns, determiners, or both. They're shown in the following table:

Initial Tag Description Group
1 1st person pronoun but can be appositive
2 2nd person
Incl Inclusive person
Rfx Reflexive pronoun only
yos· Rec Reciprocal
Rel Relative
SCT Subordinate Clause Terminator
3 3rd person, Definite pronoun or determiner
· Ind Indefinite
ch· Q Interrogative
in· Now now, this (time)
ul· then, that (time)
dor· last (+ time unit) determiner only
vel· next (+ time unit)

Special Words

A K-verb consists of only an initial verb root with a null final, except that a form of the polar question marker -che PQ can be appended. Other special words are conjunctions and other particles.

Word Tag Description Gloss
men Pst past tense "remember"
foi Fut future tense "expect"
der EN epistemic necessity "deduce"
gut EP epistemic possibility "guess"
jak DN deontic necessity "require"
roth DP deontic possibility "permit"
thas VN volitive necessity "want"
fin VP volitive possibility "okay"
bor direct evidential "see"
thel direct evidential? "hear"
- - ""
- Hrs indirect evidential "informed"


Medial Morpheme Order

The following summarizes the order of medial morphemes:

-(Derivation)- -(Aspect/Tense)- -(Voice)- -(Polarity)-


Polarity is last medial inflection.

Medial Tag Description
-en· -Neg negative
-es· -Aff affirmative
-ech· -PQ interrogative

Grammatical Voice

If no grammatical voice medial appears, the voice depends on the default for the verb stem's argument structure class. Grammatical voice doesn't apply to finite predicates.

Grammatical Voice
Medial Tag Description
-t· -Pas passive

Aspect, Tense, and Mood

The stative aspect is possible only for static verbs. The habitual and aoristic aspects are unmarked on habitual and dynamic verbs, respectively. The following table shows the aspect, tense, and mood medials:

Aspect, Tense, & Mood
Medial Tag Name Group
Stative aspect
-al· -Aor Aoristic
-uk· -Prf Perfect
-im· -Prg Progressive
-of· -Pro Prospective
-esh· -Hab Habitual
-iy· -Now Absolute Present tense
-ozh· -Jus Jussive mood


The imperative mood is formed using the prefix ji- Imp- on the finite form, with no aspect marked.

Proper nouns for persons all begin with the prefix bo- N-, which can precede a cluster.


Derivation is accomplished using only suffixing; syntactical means are used instead of compounding and incorporation.

Verb-to-Noun Suffixes

The following derive nouns from verbs:

The following derive nouns from pronouns and quantity words as well as from verbs:

Verb-to-Verb Suffixes

Noun-to-Verb Suffixes

Kinship Terms et cetera

Kinship terms are medials appended to possessor stems.

Kinship Term Medials
Female Male Collective
Medial Gloss Medial Gloss Medial Gloss
-amm· mother -att· father -aav· parents
-uthl· daughter -ukch· son -uuv· children
sister brother -ess· siblings
wife husband - -


The plural marker P- is a quantity word.

Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal numbers are quantity words:

Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial
1 yav· 10 yaad· 100 yavotk· 1000 yavishn·
2 soy· 20 soid· 200 soyotk· 2000 soyishn·
3 duz· 30 duzd· 300 duzotk· 3000 duzishn·
4 nan· 40 nand· 400 nanotk· 4000 nanishn·
5 rey· 50 reed· 500 reyotk· 5000 reyishn·
6 shil· 60 shild· 600 shilotk· 6000 shilishn·
7 ther· 70 therd· 700 therotk· 7000 therishn·
8 vim· 80 vind· 800 vimotk· 8000 vimishn·
9 khov· 90 khood· 900 khovotk· 9000 khovishn·

Compound numbers are formed highest order to lowest order all but the last number taking the aggregate final -an -Agg, e.g. shilotkan nandan soyo "642". Zero is pukh·.

Fractional Numbers

Fractional numbers represent denominators formed from cardinal numbers. They're formed by appending the derivational medial -asht -Den to the stem of the last part of the number, e.g. yavotkashto "1%".

Distributive Numbers

Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are nouns formed from cardinal numbers by appending the derivational medial -ath -Ord to the stem of the last part of the number, e.g. reedan theratho "57th".

page started: 2017.Jan.03 Tue
current date: 2017.Jan.15 Sun
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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