- Cardinal Numbers
- Basic Numbers
- Multiples of 20
- The Rest of the Numbers from 21 to 399
- Cardinal Number Inflections
- Ordinal Numbers
- Ordinal Number Stems
- Ordinal Number Inflections
- Other Quantifiers
- Inexact Quantifiers
- Universal and Existential Quantification
K'tlê uses a vigesimal (base 20) numbering system. The stems for the words for 1 through 20 are:
1 | al | 2 | le̅ | 3 | t'met | 4 | p'et | 5 | zcet |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
6 | tom | 7 | xnet | 8 | pi' | 9 | k'het | 10 | zek |
11 | zkal | 12 | tomle̅ | 13 | xinho | 14 | xin | 15 | xnal |
16 | pi'le̅ | 17 | kofo | 18 | koh | 19 | k'hal | 20 | zkle̅ |
I'm not sure about |k| > |k'| before |h|!
The words for 40, 60, and 80 are formed by suffixing |-zek| to the words for 4, 6, and 8, respectively. The words for the higher multiples of 20 (100 through 380) are formed by suffixing |-z(e)kle̅| to the words for 5 through 19, respectively (with the usual assimilations):
40 | p'etzek | 60 | tomzek | 80 | pitzek | 100 | zcetzekle̅ | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
120 | tomzekle̅ | 140 | xnetzekle̅ | 160 | pitzekle̅ | 180 | k'hetzekle̅ | 200 | zekzekle̅ |
220 | zkalzekle̅ | 240 | tomle̅zkle̅ | 260 | xinhozkle̅ | 280 | xinzekle̅ | 300 | xnalzekle̅ |
320 | pi'le̅zkle̅ | 340 | kofozkle̅ | 360 | kohzekle̅ | 380 | k'halzekle̅ |
There's an alternate word for 40: |le̅zkle̅|.
The words for 21 through 39 are formed by suffixing the words for 1 through 19, respectively, to |zkleo̅-| (note that |o̅| becomes |o| in 21):
21 | zkleoal | 22 | zkleo̅le̅ | 23 | zkleo̅t'met | 24 | zkleo̅p'et | 25 | zkleo̅zcet |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
26 | zkleo̅tom | 27 | zkleo̅xnet | 28 | zkleo̅pi' | 29 | zkleo̅k'het | 30 | zkleo̅zek |
31 | zkleo̅zkal | 32 | zkleo̅tomle̅ | 33 | zkleo̅xinho | 34 | zkleo̅xin | 35 | zkleo̅xnal |
36 | zkleo̅pi'le̅ | 37 | zkleo̅kofo | 38 | zkleo̅koh | 39 | zkleo̅k'hal |
The others are formed similarly, by suffixing the words for 1 through 19 to the words for the multiples of 20 with |-o̅-| in between (making a preceding |e̅| become |e|), e.g. |tomzekleo̅t'met| (123).
Although technically patientive verbs, the cardinal numbers are almost never used non-attributively. They agree with the noun in gender and number, with |al| always being singular (|ara, alza|) and the others always plural (e.g. |le̅ka, le̅na|), including those ending in |-al| (e.g. |zkleoalka, zkleoalma|).
The stem of the word for "last" is formed by adding the superlative suffix |w-i'| (-Sup) to |p'en|, the word for "later" or "after", producing |p'o̅ni'|. The stem of the word for "1st" is formed similarly from |kloz|, the word for "earlier" or "before", producing |kli̅zi'|.
There are two ways to form the other ordinals; one adds the ordinal suffix |y-po| or |y-op| after a vowel (-Ord) to the corresponding cardinal number:
2 | le̅cpo | 3 | t'mezpo | 4 | p'ezpo | 5 | zcezpo | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
6 | ti̅mpo | 7 | xnezpo | 8 | pi̅ppo | 9 | k'hezpo | 10 | zecpo |
11 | zke̅lpo | 12 | tomle̅cpo | 13 | xinhiop | 14 | xi̅mpo | 15 | xne̅lpo |
16 | pi'le̅cpo | 17 | kofiop | 18 | ki̅hpo | 19 | k'he̅lpo | 20 | zkle̅cpo |
The other, less elegant, way is to add the superlative suffix instead:
2 | le̅hi' | 3 | t'mezi' | 4 | p'ezi' | 5 | zcezi' | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
6 | ti̅mi' | 7 | xnezi' | 8 | pi̅i' | 9 | k'hezi' | 10 | zki' |
11 | zko̅li' | 12 | tomle̅hi' | 13 | xinhoi' | 14 | xi̅ni' | 15 | xno̅li' |
16 | pi'le̅hi' | 17 | kofoi' | 18 | ki̅hi' | 19 | k'ho̅li' | 20 | zkle̅hi' |
All the ordinal numbers, including |p'o̅ni'|, must take the partitive prefixes. Any noun phrase to which the partitive refers to must be plural if not a mass noun. Otherwise, ordinal numbers act like patientive verbs. Note that the partitive itself can be singular or plural.
.te/pi/p/oc |
te̅pi̅ppoc. |
"You're the 8th one of us." |
te̅-pi̅p-po-c |
1NP.Par-8-Ord-2S |
.ha/tat'pe/ ikli/zik/a kompe/n | ||
ha̅tat'pe̅ ikli̅zikka kompe̅n. | ||
"The first group of kompe are coming." | ||
ha̅-ta-t'p-e̅ | i-kli̅z-ik-ka | kompe̅-n |
3P-here-go/come-Ipf | 3P.Par-before-Sup-AniP | kompe-P |
inak | many, numerous |
te̅n | everyone (human) | UniH |
---|---|---|
te̅na | everything (non-human or general) | UniN |
te̅n | every, all |
page started: 2009.Oct.22 Thu
last modified: 2010.Mar.20 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh
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