Jul17 –  A Constructed Language

Jul17 Nouns and Pronouns

Some Terminology

The K-person is equivalent to the 1st person singular (1S) in statements and to the 2nd person singular (2S) in questions. In commands, it's equivalent to 2nd person with number not distinguished.

Noun Part

Noun Inflection

Each noun is either animate or inanimate. Nouns have determiner prefixes which specify definiteness and referentiality and, if indefinite but referential, number. The following table shows the determiner prefixes with approximate translations:

Prefix Tag Description Gloss
0- Def- Definite the
se-, so- S- indefinite Singular a
pa- P- indefinite Plural some
lu- NR- Non-Referential any
ci- CQ- Content Question which?

The indefinite Singular suffix is so- before qu, cu, gu, and xu and otherwise se-.

Dummy Nouns

The dummy nouns nu (animate) and na (inanimate) are used mainly in the partitive to specify the part, with a singular or plural indefinite prefix.


The local pronouns distinguish number as well as person. 3rd person pronouns distinguish gender (as well as number?). Content question pronouns distinguish gender. Otherwise, the pronouns are not inflected. The following table shows the pronouns along with their descriptions:

Pronoun Tag Description Group
bī 1S 1st person Singular Local
fila 1XP 1st person eXclusive Plural
xima 1NP 1st person iNclusive Plural
sū 2S 2nd person Singular
duma 2P 2nd person Plural
tō 3AS 3rd person Animate proximate Singular 3rd Person
??? 3AP 3rd person Animate proximate Plural
tā 3IS 3rd person Inanimate Singular
??? 3IP 3rd person Inanimate Plural
ciu CQA Content Question, Animate Other
cia CQI Content Question, Inanimate
hu RPA Relative Pronoun, Animate
ha RPI Relative Pronoun, Inanimate
xū Rfx Reflexive

There is also a null pronoun which always represents the K-person.

The suffix -ba "other" may be appended to 3rd person pronouns and content question pronouns; for the former, it forms obviative pronouns and for the latter, may be translated as "who/what else". The interlinear tag for -ba is -O.

page started: 2013.Aug.03 Sat
current date: 2013.Aug.04 Sun
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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