Jul17 –  A Constructed Language

Jul17 Syntactical Function and Mood

Some Terminology

The term mode is used here for a fusion of mood and syntactical function.

Mode Suffixes

Mode Suffixes
Suffix Tag Mood Function
-c -Fac factual main
-qua -Ctf contrafactual
-cī -PQ polar question
-cai -CPQ contrafactual polar question
-sa -Jus jussive
-s -Imp imperative
-n -Sub subjunctive subordinate
-r -Opt optative
-0 -Sec   secondary
-u -Att   attributive

A direct, antipassive, or reflexive imperative can use only a 2nd person pronoun (or the null pronoun) for the noun part.

Mode Usage

Imp imperative identifies a direct command
Jus jussive identifies a wish or an indirect command or a suggestion etc.
Fac factual identifies a factual statement
Ctf contrafactual identifies a contrafactual statement
PQ polar question identifies a yes/no question
CPQ contrafactual
polar question
= contrafactual + polar question

Each of the above terminates a main clause and appears at the end of a sentence. The next 2 terminate subordinate clauses that act as the implicit argument for the following word-pair.

Opt optative identifies an imagined, but possible, situation
Sub subjunctive identifies an actual situation

Sec secondary identifies one of 2 things:
resultative a resulting situation
depictive a situation in effect (before, during, or after some subsequent one)

Att attributive also has 2 uses:
(bivalent) indicates that this word-pair modifies the following noun
(univalent) indicates that the verb modifies its own explicit argument

Note: a bivalent verb is treated as univalent if Ant, Pas, or Rfx is marked; these will be covered in Grammatical Voice.

Some Examples

In the following, inflections that haven't been covered yet are left out.

cattu- grano-c
cat- black-Fac
"The cat is black." or
"The cats are black."

daxta- nē-cī
house- in-PQ
"Are you in the house?"

se-salu- tabo-qua
S-fish- eat-Ctf
"I would've eaten a fish."

salu- tabe-cai
fish- eat-CPQ
"Would you have eaten the fish?"

salu- tabe-s
fish- eat-Imp
"Eat the fish!"

suma- tompe-sa
man- run-Jus
"Have the man run." or
"May the man run." etc.

cattutomper sumalāc.
cattu- tompe-r suma- lā-c
cat- run-Opt man- want-Fac
"The man wants the cat to run."

pacattutompen sumaguenoc.
pa-cattu- tompe-n suma- gueno-c
P-cat- run-Sub man- see-Fac
"The man sees some cats run."

lugubribē daxtanēsa.
lu-gubri- bē-0 daxta- nē-sa
NR-cockroach- exist-Sec house- in-Jus
"May there be cockroaches in the house."

sumatabāxe salutabesa.
suma- tabāxe-0 salu- tabe-sa
man- hungry-Sec fish- eat-Jus
"Let the man eat the fish while he's hungry."

pifcitabō gubritompoqua.
pifci- tabo-w gubri- tompo-qua
crumb- eat-Att cockroach- run-Ctf
"The cockroach that ate the crumb would've run."

cattugranō daxtanēc.
cattu- grano-w daxta- nē-c
cat- black-Att house- in-Fac
"The black cat is in the house."

Genitive and Partitive Constructions

Strictly speaking, there are no cases. However, attributive forms of cu and su are used (respectively) as if genitive and partitive case suffixes. For the genitive, the possessor takes the attributive verb form which precedes the possessum:

daxicū cattugranoc.
daxi- cu-w cattu- grano-c
woman- have-Att cat- black-Fac
"The woman's cat is black."

In the partitive construction, the noun denoting the whole takes the attributive verb form with the part, which consists of a dummy noun with an indefinite prefix, following. The whole is normally definite.

cattusū panutabāxoc.
cattu- su-w pa-nu- tabāxo-c
cat- have-Att P-DNA- hungry-Fac
"Some of the cats are hungry."

Copula Forms

Note that the copula is distinct from the verb bē "exist". The following table show the positive forms of the copula:

Copula Forms
Main Subordinate Other
Fac Ctf PQ CPQ Jus Imp Sub Opt Sec Att
ioc iqua icī icai isa ios ion ior i iō

The morph io is used with the negative and affirmative suffixes.

Identity and Definition Clauses

The copula, which is bivalent, is used as the verb part for the complement. The following is an example of a definition clause:

giannibē sesumaioc.
gianni- bē-0 se-suma- io-c
John- exist-Sec S-man- Cop-Fac
"John is a man."

And here's an identity clause:

giannibē hutabāxe salutabō sumaioc.
gianni- bē-0 hu- tabāxe salu- tabo-w suma- io-c
John- exist-Sec RPA- hungry fish- eat-Att man- Cop-Fac
"John is the hungry man eating the fish."

page started: 2013.Aug.03 Sat
current date: 2013.Aug.06 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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