Jul05 –  A Constructed Language

Jul05 Phonology and Orthography

The tables show the relevent phonetic symbols (in IPA) with the corresponding orthographic symbols.

Vowel Qualities

There are 5 vowel phonemes.

Vowel Qualities
  front back
high i i - - - u u
mid - e e - o o -
low - - a a - -

Consonant Qualities

There are approximately 22 consonant phonemes.

Consonant Qualities
  labial coronal dorsal guttural
stop voiceless p pʰ p - t tʰ t - - k kʰ k - ʔ '
voiced b b - d d - - g g - -
affricate voiceless - t͡s c t͡ɕ č - -
voiced - d͡z z d͡ʑ ž - -
nasal voiced m m - n n* - ɲ ň ŋ n* - -
fricative voiceless - f f s s ɕ š - χ x -
voiced - - ʑ j - -
tap/flap voiced - ɾ r - - -
vocoid voiced w w - l - j y - -

Syllables and Prosody

Except for surface phonetics, syllables are (C)V(C). A sequence of two identical vowels in open syllables may form a phonetic long vowel, as in Žaani, or a phonetic diphthong.


Vowel and Consonant Combinations

Two adjacent vowels combine into one (except when a glottal stop originally intervened), as shown in the following table:

Vowel Combinations
  + 0 + *i + *ɛ + *ɑ + *u
*i i i ya yo yu
e e e a o
a e a o o
*u u wi we wa u

The resulting y and w combine with the preceding consonant:

Consonant Combinations
C Cw Cy
p p py
b b by
m m my
t c č
d z ž
n n ň
s s š
r r j
k kw ky
g gw gy
' w y

The consonants t and d are also mutated by a following i or u. The consonants s and n are also mutated by a following i.

Consonant Stem Changes

The stem-final consonants p and t become f before certain consonant-initial suffixes. Stem-final k becomes š after i or e and x after a or u before the same suffixes. Stem-final ' becomes 0 before a vowel-initial suffix, without the vowels combining.

Vowel Deletion

Non-final i and u are deleted under 2 circumstances:

  1. when between a nasal and a homorganic stop, affricate, or nasal
  2. when between 2 voiceless consonants

with the restriction that extraheavy syllables not be formed. Final i and u may similarly be deleted in speech but not in writing.

page started: 2013.Jul.09 Tue
current date: 2013.Jul.09 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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