Jul05 –  A Constructed Language

Jul05 Morphology



Each noun is either animate or inanimate. Nouns are inflected for number and case. Number is singular and plural, with singular unmarked. The cases are nominative (Nom), accusative (Acc), absolutive (Abs), vocative (Voc), genitive (Gen), partitive (Par), comitative (Com), dative (Dat), instrumental (Ins), and ablative (Abl).

All noun stems end in vowels. The stem is the accusative singular for animate nouns and the absolutive singular for inanimate nouns. The endings for the vocative singular, the nominative singular, and the genitive singular depend on the specific vowel with that vowel replaced:

Case Singular Endings
-Abs -i -e -a -u -o
-Gen -yo -a -o -wa -oa
-Voc -i -e -e -wi -oi
-Nom -iš -eš -eš -wiš -oiš

There may also be accent shifts. The remaining endings are added to the stem vowel:

Case Singular Plural
-Abs -* -n
-Nom -* -biš
-Voc -* -bi
-Gen -* -na
-Par -šan
-Com -cu -ncu
-Dat -da -nda
-Ins -be -mbe
-Abl -go -ngo


In the following tables, = indicates a proclitic form.

Plain Local Pronouns
Case 1S 1XP 1NP 2S 2P RFX
Nom saiš saniš paniš doiš doniš -
0 niš 0 niš
Acc me= neš= wax= te= yux= se=
Gen ma= neka= waka= ta= yuka= sa=
Dat mo= neku= waku= to= yuku= so=
All meda sanda panda teda donda seda
Ins mebe sambe pambe tebe dombe sebe
Com mecu sancu pancu tecu doncu secu
Abl mego sango pango tego dongo sego
Par - nekšan wakšan - yukšan sešan

3rd Person Pronouns
Case 3AS 3AP 3IS 3IP
Abs - - ki= kin=
Acc ka= kan= - -
Nom keš kabiš - -
Gen ko= kana= kyo= kina=
Dat ko= kanu= - -
All kada kanda kida kinda
Ins kabe kambe kibe kimbe
Com kacu kancu kicu kincu
Abl kago kango kigo kingo
Par - kašan kišan


Postpositions can take the following cases: dative as allative, instrumental as perlative and ablative. The unmarked postposition is locative.

Verb Conjugation

Each verb is either static or dynamic and either intransitive or transitive. Verbs are inflected for tense, mood, aspect, grammatical voice, polarity, and syntactical function; these are all marked by suffixes. Verbs can also take applicative prefixes. These are:

Applicative Prefixes
Prefix Tag Corresponding Case
cu- ? locative/comitative
da- ? allative/dative
go- ? ablative
be- ? perlative/instrumental

Grammatical Voice

The grammatical voices are active and passive, with active unmarked. Passive is marked by the suffix -ra (which may cause root or stem modification). The reflexive pronoun is used instead of a reflexive voice.

An applicative makes an intransitive verb transitive and replaces the direct object of an already transitive verb. The passive deletes the subject of a transitive verb, making the direct object the subject. The applicative and passive may be used together.


Positive polarity is unmarked. Negative polarity is marked by the suffix -enage (Neg) and affirmative polarity by -edeši (Aff). These are, in origin, auxiliary verbs.

Aspect Suffixes

The following table lists the aspects with their prefixes and tags. Stative applies only to static verbs while aoristic and progressive apply only to dynamic verbs; the other aspects apply to both.

Aspect Suffixes
Suffix Tag Aspect
-0 Sta stative
-0 Aor aoristic
-en Prg progressive
-uk Prf perfect
-as Pro prospective
-'im Hab habitual

Syntactical Function and Mood

These are marked by the "final" vowel suffix.

Final Suffixes
Suffix Tag Usage
-i Att attributive (participles)
-e Cor infinitives and secondary predicates
-a Imp imperative/hortative/jussive
-ai Sub subjunctive/optative
-u Fin indicative

The indicative may be followed by a post-final suffix, in which case the u may be deleted, depending on the stem and the suffix.

There are no passive imperatives.

Tense Suffixes

These are the post-final "tense" suffixes.

Post-Final Suffixes
Suffix Tag Usage
-či AT absolute (present) time reference
-to DT definite (non-present) time reference
-so RT relative time reference
-bo QT question time reference
-'i ST subordinate time (nominalizer)


An adjective is a word that can take comparison morphosyntax. Most adjectives are static intransitive verbs. Exceptions include "fast", "slow", "many", "few", "much", "little", "near", and "far". The comparison suffixes are:

Adjective Suffixes
Suffix Tag Name
-?? Sup superlative
-?? Cpr comparative
-?? Equ equative


Numbers aren't inflected, but ordinal numbers are derived from corresponding cardinal number using the suffix -?? (Ord).

page started: 2013.Jul.10 Wed
current date: 2013.Jul.10 Wed
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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