Jan29 –  A Constructed Language

Jan29 Morphology


Almost every word is a combination of a noun or pronoun (the noun part) with a verb or case marker (the verb part), with the noun part first and the verb part last.

Noun Part Inflection

Noun Part Bases

The basic morpheme in the noun part of a word is either a noun or a gender marker.

Gender Markers
Tag Form Description
-L= -èl= place
-T= -os= time when
-H= -a= person
-A= -e= other animate
-I= -i= inanimate
-X= -au= abstract

Determiner Prefixes

A determiner prefix must be followed by a noun or gender marker. There are two groups. Those of the 1st group fuse with number marking (singular S or plural P):

Determiners Group 1
Singular Plural Description
Tag Form Tag Form
US- m(o)- UP- mis- specific indefinite
DS- p(o)- DP- pis- demonstrative
3S- (')- 3P- s(o)- definite

The definite prefixes combined with the gender markers effectively form the 3rd person pronouns. Examples:

3P-H= sa= 3rd person, plural, person
US-I= mi= indefinite, singular, inanimate
UP-dog= misxaufa= some dogs

Determiners of the 2nd group lack number marking:

Determiners Group 2
Tag Form Description
NR- k(o)- non-referential
CQ- x(o)- content question
Exi- môk- existential quantifier
Uni- jâk- universal quantifier
Nul- ñæk- nullar quantifier

The non-referential determiner applies only to nouns.

NR-dog= koxaufa= dogs, in general
Nul-T= ñækos= never


A pronoun replaces the noun or determiner-gender marker combination. The kinds of pronouns are personal and special.

Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural Description
Tag Form Tag Form
1S= fè= 1P= fô= 1st person (exclusive)
= = NP= jô= 1st person (inclusive)
2S= ci= 2P= cû= 2nd person

Special Pronouns
Tag Form Description
Rel= li= relative pronoun
Cor= wè= verb's argument coreference
Rfx= na= agent (=Agt) coreference
Sub= ta= begins subordinate clause
Adv= ti= dummy pronoun for adverbs of manner
Deg= ha= dummy pronoun for adverbs of degree

Verb Part Inflection

Case Suffixes

Case Suffixes
Tag Form Description
=Abl =mi origin or source
=Agt =n agent
=All =se destination
=Ben =pèc beneficiary
=Cau =tko causer
=CLT =lif less than
=Cmp =raf more than
=Equ =hê as much as
=Gen =r possessor or whole
=Img =k what's perceived
=Ins =ne instrument
=Loc =lo location
=Mal =ñol maleficiary
=Rsl =s resultative
=Sat =mpa satisfactive
=Tar =ka target
=Tmp =e time when
=Via =toq route

Copular Suffixes

A copular suffix is appended to a noun root to make it act as a verb. As the aspect vowel is always the same, it will be omitted from interlinears.

Copular Suffixes
Tag Form Description
-Def -me copula of definition
-Id -te copula of identity

Modals and Aspectuals

The modals and aspectuals are verb part suffixes that appear only when needed and are appended to verbs but not case markers. The potential modal is always coreferential, though the content situation is irrealis. The aspectuals are coreferential cotemporal auxiliaries such as the process phases. The epistemic modals implicitly reference the speaker (or the addressee in questions). The order of suffixes is


Modals and Aspectuals
Tag Suffix Description Type
-Pot -upt physical possibility modal
-Beg -uxl begin aspectual
-Pau -u'm pause
-Res -unt resume
-Fin -us' finish
-Con -onat continue
-Rep -oxal repeat
-EP -q epistemic possibility modal
-EN -s epistemic necessity

Aspect Suffixes

The aspect suffixes are required on verbs, but are not appended to case-markers.

Aspect Suffixes
Tag Final + EN + EP Name
-Aor -i -is -uq aoristic
-Hab -e -ès -oq habitual
-Dur -a -as -aq durative


Locational Verbs

The suffix -ic (-V) is appended to a determiner of the 2nd group (in place of the gender marker) to derive a locational verb.

Locational Verbs
Tag Form Gloss
=CQ-V =xic "where?"
=Exi-V =môkic "somewhere"
=Uni-V =jâkic "everywhere"
=Nul-V =ñækic "nowhere"

page started: 2013.Feb.02 Sat
current date: 2013.Feb.06 Wed
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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