Feb26 –  A Constructed Language

Feb26 Stem Formation

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Noun Stem Formation

Noun stems are divided into those ending with noun roots and those ending with verb roots. The latter are limited to certain deverbal nouns.

Compound Nouns

Most compound nouns are asymmetrical, with the modifier preceding the head. There are a large number of semantic classes according to the implied relationship between the head and the modifier. There may also be some symmetrical compound nouns.

Paired Asymmetrical Compounds
Modifier Head Example Inverse
set element - row house - house row
entity detail - car tire - apple pie
source product - beeswax - coal mine
cause effect - water mark - tear gas
action object - game animal - deer hunting
activity implement - tennis ball - table tennis
inhabitant location - family land - table lamp
event time - vacation day - spring festival
substance container - tea cup - cup of tea
product producer - silkworm - cow's milk
sold entity where available - sushi bar - grocery sushi
material artifact - stone lion - building stone
protector danger - mask gas? - gas mask
possessor possessum - governor's mansion - ???

Other Asymmetrical Compounds
Modifier Head Example
species genus - pine tree
selector entity - soldier ant
resemblance entity - cherry bomb
override entity - space ship
whole analogous part - tooth root
energy source instrument - wind mill
purpose instrument - lamp shade
object instrument - pepper stone
energy source instrument - electric lamp
application locus substance - tooth paste

Verb Nominalizations

A stem which otherwise acts as a verb may be nominalized with an action classifier: either -AN1 or -AN2, which are implicitly inanimate. The possessor of an AN1 noun has the patient role while the possessor of an AN2 noun has the agent role. In the case of scalar verb stems, the possessor of AN1 is also the subject of comparison.

Participant nouns referring to patients or subjects are formed by replacing the verb classifier with the appropriate noun classifier. Other participant nouns are formed by appending a new final content morpheme to the stem; these are shown in the following table:

Participant Finals
Final Tag Animacy Description
- Agent Animate agent
- Instr Inanimate instrument
- Locat Inanimate location
- - - -

Verb Stem Formation

In general, verb stems end in verb roots. However, there may be some verb roots that also function as noun roots.

When a relational root is combined with one of locomotion, the relational appears last. The perlative root "pass" may appear in between.


Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal numbers are quantity words:

Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial Value Initial
1 yav· 10 yaad· 100 yavotk· 1000 yavishn·
2 soy· 20 soid· 200 soyotk· 2000 soyishn·
3 duz· 30 duzd· 300 duzotk· 3000 duzishn·
4 nan· 40 nand· 400 nanotk· 4000 nanishn·
5 rey· 50 reed· 500 reyotk· 5000 reyishn·
6 shil· 60 shild· 600 shilotk· 6000 shilishn·
7 ther· 70 therd· 700 therotk· 7000 therishn·
8 vim· 80 vind· 800 vimotk· 8000 vimishn·
9 khov· 90 khood· 900 khovotk· 9000 khovishn·

Compound numbers are formed highest order to lowest order all but the last number taking the aggregate final -an -Agg, e.g. shilotkan nandan soyo "642". Zero is pukh·.

Fractional Numbers

Fractional numbers represent denominators formed from cardinal numbers. They're formed by appending the derivational medial -asht -Den to the stem of the last part of the number, e.g. yavotkashto "1%".

Distributive Numbers

Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are nouns formed from cardinal numbers by appending the derivational medial -ath -Ord to the stem of the last part of the number, e.g. reedan theratho "57th".

page started: 2017.Mar.11 Sat
current date: 2017.Mar.11 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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