Dec11A –  A Constructed Language

Dec11A Morphology

A morpheme-initial i or u will usually fuse with the final vowel of the preceding morpheme to form a diphthong or a long vowel. E.g. te-i- > tee-.

Final codas may regularly assimilate to initial onsets, e.g. -k + p- becomes -pp- (geminate).

Verb Inflection

Univalent Subject-Aspect-Voice/Gender-Polar-ROOT
Bivalent Subject-Aspect-Voice/Gender-Polar-ROOT-Patient
Trivalent Subject-Aspect-Voice/Gender-Polar-ROOT-Recipient-Theme


Positive polarity is 0-marked. Negative polarity uses the prefix nae- (Neg) and affirmative polarity uses the prefix too- (Aff).

Voice/Gender Prefixes

There are 5 classes of verbs:

Verb Classes
PA univalent with animate subject
PI univalent with inanimate subject
AA bivalent with animate patient
AI bivalent with inanimate patient
Tri trivalent with animate recipient and inanimate theme

Univalent verbs can be made bivalent by marking them as causative (adding an agent), while bivalent verbs can be made univalent by marking them as passive (removing the agent). The passive also makes trivalent verbs bivalent by removing the donor. The gender of the subject (if univalent or passive) or the patient (if bivalent or causative) can also be changed. These 2 operations are fused into 4 prefixes:

Voice/Gender Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description
n(u)- APas- passive, patient is animate
k(u)- IPas- passive, patient is inanimate
i- ACau- causative, patient is animate
s(u)- ICau- causative, patient is inanimate

Voice/Gender is 0-marked iff neither feature is to be overridden.

Aspect Prefixes

Aspect Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description
0- Sta. stative (static)
0- Aor. aoristic (dynamic)
ra- Prg- progressive (dynamic)
ce- Ret- retrospective
po- Pro- prospective

Subject Prefixes

The 3rd person forms are used for attributive participles as well for finite verbs. The coreferential is used for infinitives and secondary predicates.

Subject Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description
ki- 1S- 1st person singular
ma- 1P- 1st person plural
so- 2- 2nd person
sa- Imp- imperative (2nd person)
te- 3- 3rd person
e- SS- same subject
0- Cor. coreferential

Patient, Recipient, and Theme Suffixes

The 0-marked 3rd person suffix is used for patient, recipient, and theme while unspecfied inanimate can't be used as a recipient and the others can't be used as themes.

Object Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-ki -1S 1st person singular
-ma -1P 1st person plural
-so -2 2nd person
-0 .3 3rd person
-he -Rfx reflexive
-no -UA unspecified animate ("somebody")
-r(u) -UI unspecified inanimate ("something")

Nouns and Pronouns

Nouns are not inflected.

Personal pronouns have base forms and genitive forms, regularly formed.

Personal Pronoun Inflection
Base Gen. Tag Description
kii kin 1S 1st person singular
maa man 1P 1st person plural
soo son 2 2nd person
mee men 3A 3rd person, animate, proximate
pee pen 3O 3rd person, animate, obviative
taa tan 3I 3rd person, inanimate
hee hen Rfx reflexive
jaa jan RP relative pronoun

Combinations of determiners and dummy nouns are used for the additional pronouns, e.g. pakme "everyone". The demonstratives also distinguish number by inserting the proclitic quantity word ak (P) between the demonstrative and the dummy noun for the plural forms. E.g. kicta proximal singular inanimate and kicatta proximal plural inanimate.


Derivational Prefixes

Ordinal numbers are regularly derived from the corresponding cardinal numbers using the prefix pec- (Ord-).

Comparative and equative forms of adjectival verbs are regularly derived using the prefixes nok- (Cmp-) and turi- (Equ-), respectively.

Inchoative verbs (which are dynamic) are regularly derived from static verbs using the prefix ha- (Inc-). Example:

cii sorashamokki?
cii so-ra-s-ha-mok-ki-0
PQ 2-Prg-ICau-Inc-hot-1S-3
"Are you making it hot for me?"


Compounds are Head-Modifier.

page started: 2013.Dec.16 Mon
current date: 2013.Dec.19 Thu
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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