Dec06 –  A Constructed Language

Dec06 Syntax


The order of phrase components is Modifier-Head. The head word of the phrase, not necessarily a lexical noun, is inflected for case; any preceding nouns or participles have the absolutive form. Participles agree with the head word in gender. A phrase may begin with a determiner followed by a quantity word.


Phrases with neither determiner nor quantity word are definite except when used as predicates, when they're non-referential. Phrases with a quantity word but no determiner are indefinite. The quantity words include cardinal numbers and certain other words. The universal quantifier precludes any quantity word.

Word Tag Description
# Prox proximal demonstrative
# Medi medial demonstrative
# Dist distal demonstrative
# Uni universal quantifier
# CQ content question


The unmarked order of components in a typical clause is Agent-Patient-Verb; in any case, the verb appears last.

Secondary predicates take the coreferential form and follow the coreferenced arguments.

Temporal Adjuncts

A temporal adjunct specifies the temporal relation between the host situation and a subordinate one. It can be coreferential or non-coreferential. If the former, the adjunct verb takes the coreferential ending and if the latter, it takes a finite form. In both cases, the adjunct verb is followed by the conjunction Tmp. A coreferential adjunct clause follows the coreferenced argument while a non-coreferential one precedes the host clause. The tense of the adjunct verb corresponds to the temporal relation:

Complement Clauses

A complement clause is one that takes the place of the absolutive argument. It can be coreferential or non-coreferential. If the former, the verb takes the infinitive form and if the latter, the verb takes a finite ending and is followed by the complementizer (Cpl).

Relative Clauses

A relative (or attributive) clause precedes the phrase it modifies. It begins with a form of the relative pronoun RP, which agrees with head word in gender; note that the verb of the relative clause doesn't necessarily have the same gender.

Definition and Identity

These consist of two phrases, the subject and the predicate, in that order. Both are absolutive.


Conjoined Clauses

Conditional Sentences

Satisfactive Sentences

page started: 2013.Dec.09 Mon
current date: 2013.Dec.10 Tue
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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