Aug28 –  A Constructed Language

Aug28 Other Morphology

Legend: Definitions, Terms, <Text>, {}, [IPA], -Tags-, and "Glosses".

Quantity Words

Scalar Quantities

The non-numeric quantities nazo nazo "many", seno seno "few", hoso hoso "much", and cilo cilo "little" are scalar.

Cardinal Numbers

A cardinal number is a sequence of 1 or more digits, starting with the most significant. The final o (appearing in the citation form) is omitted on all but the last digit, e.g. cekticketo cekuticuketo "642".

Value Word Value Word
0 zio ziqo 1 kono kono
2 keto keto 3 talo talo
4 tico tico 5 coxo coxo
6 ceko ceko 7 laho laho
8 lizo lizo 9 zoko zoko

A positive exponent is derived by replacing the final o of a cardinal number with -azto -azuto and a negative exponent is derived with -ikto -ikuto. An exponent always follows the whole number or fraction it modifies.

The denominator of a fraction is derived by replacing the final o of a cardinal number with -oso -oso -Div. The denominator follows the numerator.

A non-zero number is made negative by replacing the final o of the numerator with -elo -elo -Min.

Example: ticelo taloso ketazto ticelo taloso ketazuto "-400/3".

Ordinal Numbers

The ordinal numbers are verbs derived from the corresponding cardinal numbers (starting at 0) using the suffix -lo lo -Ord.

Quantity Verbs

A descriptive scalar verb is derived from any quantity word by replacing the final o with at -atu.

Nominalized Quantity Words

A quantity word is nominalized by replacing the final o with one of the following gender suffixes:

Nominalizing Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-as -asu -A Animate
-it -itu -I Inanimate
-ok -oku -L Locational

The quantity verbs for "much" and "little" produce mass nouns, so they take singular suffixes. The cardinal number for "1" also takes singular suffixes while the word for "0" may take either singular or plural suffixes. All other quantity words take plural suffixes.

Noun Morphology

Each noun has an implicit gender: animate, inanimate, or locational. There are also adverbial nouns.

Noun Stems and Forms

Morphologically, there are 2 kinds of nouns: root nouns and deverbal nouns. The structures for these are shown in the following tables:

Root Nouns
# Req. Name Description
1 no Number
2 no Modifier noun root
3 no
4 yes Head noun root
5 no Case =0 iff default for gender

Deverbal Nouns
# Req. Name Description
1 no Number
2 no Incorporated noun root
3 yes Verb Stem
4 yes Head noun root or nominalizer
5 no Case =0 iff default for gender


The plural prefix (technically a proclitic quantity word) is te- te P-; singular number is unmarked.

Agreement Suffixes

A noun takes a case suffix unless the case is the default for the noun's gender (instrumental-ergative for animate nouns, absolutive for inanimate, and locative for locational). The suffixes, which are independent of number, are shown in the following table:

Case Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-na na -Ins Instrumental-ergative
-ti ti -Abs Absolutive
-ci ci -Loc Locative
-ko ko -Gen Genitive
-le le -Voc Vocative

Deverbal Nouns

The verb stem is like that described in the verb morphology section but without any habitual or semelfactive preverb. The kinds of deverbal nouns with nominalizers are action nouns, participant noun, and superlatives.

Suffix Tag Name Gender
-xan xanu -AgtN Agent Noun Animate
-tin tinu -APat Animate Patient
-sen senu -IPat Inanimate Patient Inanimate
- - -InsN Instrument Noun
-ez -ezu -ActN Action Noun
-kon konu -LocN Locational Noun Locational
- - -Sup Superlative (indeterminate)

Proper Nouns

The proper nouns include personal names (animate), place names (locational), and names of groups of people (animate). Personal names and place names lack number. The cases are the same as for common nouns.

Noun Examples

locez -ci
chair -Loc
"on a chair" (singular locative)

te- kotah- kozet -en -ko
P- box- carry -Agt -Gen
"boxcarriers" (plural genitive)

Pronouns and Determiners

The correlative pronoun az qazu Cor is always marked for case. It doesn't distinguish number.

Local and Reflexive Pronouns

The local and reflexive pronouns are always inflected for case, using the same suffixes as for nouns. The reflexive pronoun lacks the instrumental-ergative form and all of these lack vocative forms.

Local & Reflexive Pronouns
Pronoun Tag Description
si si 1S 1st person singular
ki ki 1XP 1st person exclusive plural
ni ni 1NP 1st person inclusive plural
no no 2 2nd person
xa xa Rfx Reflexive (= matrix agent)

Interrogative and Satisfactive Determiners and Pronouns

The interrogative and satisfactive determiners and related pronouns are shown in the following table; these also take the noun cases (identity pronouns are taken as if animate and definition pronouns as if inanaimate).

Interrogatives & Satisfactives
Interrogative Satisfactive Description
cat catu Q tec tecu Sat Determiner
catal catalu QId tecal tecalu SatId Identity
catiz catizu QDef teciz tecizu SatDef Definition
catok catoku QLoc tecok tecoku SatLoc Locational

Other Determiners and Related Pronouns

The pronominal determiners are the other ones with related pronouns; they're shown in the following table:

Pronominal Determiners
Determiner Description
siz sizu D1 near speaker, demonstrative
sal salu D2 not near speaker, demonstrative
ek qeku D3 anaphoric (= 3rd person)
in qinu Ind Specific Indefinite
lan lanu Uni Universal Quantifier

The pronouns are formed by adding the following suffixes:

Pronominal Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description
-as -asu -A Animate
-it -itu -I Inanimate
-ok -oku -L Locational

The remaining determiners are shown in the following table:

Remaining Determiners
Word Tag Name
os qosu D0 definite but not anaphoric
loq loqu Rel Relative Head

Adverbs and Conjunctions

The following table shows the subordinating conjunctions with corresponding interrogative adverbs:

Adverbs & Conjunctions
Adverb Conjunction Name
Word Tag Word Tag
camiik'o - QRat miik'o - Rat Reason
cauter - QFor uter - For Purpose
cawan - QBy wan - By Means

page started: 2018.Aug.29 Wed
current date: 2018.Sep.05 Wed
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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