Apr21 –  A Constructed Language

Apr21 Phonology and Orthography

The tables show the relevent phonetic symbols (in IPA) with the corresponding orthographic symbols.

Vowel Qualities

There are 6 vowel phonemes. There's also an unwritten schwa, inserted between certain consonant pairs for easier pronunciation. There are 2 diphthongs (ai [ai] and au [au]).

Vowel Qualities
  unrounded rounded
front back
high i i - - u u
high-mid e e - - o o
low-mid - ɛ æ - -
low - - ɑ a -

Consonant Qualities

There are 20 consonant phonemes. In addition, the vowel letters i and u may act as the consonants [j] and [w], respectively, before dissimilar vowels.

Consonant Qualities
  labial coronal dorsal guttural
stop voiceless p p - t t - k k - -
voiced b b - d d - g g - -
affricate voiceless - - - t͡ʃ c - - -
voiced - - - d͡ʒ j - - -
nasal voiced m m - n n* - ŋ n* - -
fricative voiceless - f f s s ʃ x - χ q -
voiced - v v z ʒ y - ʁ h -
lateral - - ɬ z - - - -
trill voiced - - r r - - - -
vocoid voiced - - l l - - - -

Syllables and Prosody

Syllables are (C)V, (C)VV, (C)VC, and (C)VCC.

Stress may be on the ultima, penult, or antepenult; this is determined by the historical syllable weight and must be marked by an acute in many cases. The diphthongs and e and u are always 2 moras; the other vowels are either 2 moras if originally long and 1 mora if originally short. Each coda consonant is 1 mora.

For words of 3 or more syllables:

For words of 2 syllables:

For words of 1 syllables:


Vowel Origins

The following table shows the origin of the vowels (via long vowels) and diphthongs from combinations of vowels or vowel plus coda consonants.

Vowel Origins
  + 0 + *i/d͡ʒ + *ə/d + *a/g + *u/b
*i (i) i i e u
(æ) e æ a o
*a (a) ai a a au
*u (o) i u o u

Consonant Lenition

The initial consonant of a morpheme may undergo lenition when the preceding morpheme ends in a vowel.

Consonant Lenition
From: p t c k b d j g
To: b d j g v 0 y h

page started: 2013.Apr.22 Mon
current date: 2013.Apr.27 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

Table of Contents