KLH1 Constructed Language

KLH1 Syntax


So far, the language is strictly VSO (but often not VAP, due to the hierarchical nature). All questions begin with the question particle Q, which allows the word identifying which content is queried to stay in place (while resolving K and L), as in

Q Pst-give->S woman boy Int? "What did the woman give the boy?"

Relative clauses are similar except that (A) a different particle and pronoun are used, and (B) the relative clause is replaced by an attributive construction when the relativized item is a marked argument of the RC's main verb.

book Rel Pst-give->S woman boy RP "the book the woman gave the boy"

The object of a relational verb, such as "in", or the theme of a trivalent verb, such as "give", isn't marked on the verb, but requires an actual pronoun when pronominal, e.g.

Prs-Loc John K. "John is with me."


  1. A proper noun is automatically definite.
  2. A possessed noun must be marked for possessor and number (similar to transitive verbs) and is definite.
  3. A non-possessed noun is definite if marked for number (in some fashion; I haven't decided which) and is indefinite when unmarked. Such indefinite noun phrases are used as complements of definition.
  4. A definite 3rd person pronoun; these are animate, inanimate, or alternate and singular or plural. The pronoun may combine with a following attributive.

    In any of the above definite phrases, cardinal numbers follow the noun or pronoun.

  5. A demonstrative may be followed by any of the above definite phrases; in this case, the quantifier follows the demonstrative.
  6. Any quantifier (including cardinal and fractional numbers) may precede an indefinite phrase (which may be nounless here). The universal quantifier makes the construction definite; otherwise, it's indefinite. A definite phrase used in place of the indefinite one is automatically taken as partitive.
  7. An ordinal number (possibly followed by a cardinal number) may precede a definite (and partitive) phrase.
  8. Likewise, a superlative adjective (possibly with a cardinal number) may also precede a definite (and partitive) phrase.

Everything else follows the noun or pronoun.

page started: 2011.May.21 Sat
current date: 2011.May.22 Sun
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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