– TIAL –
An Interpersonal Auxiliary Language

TIAL Morphology

Inflectional Morphology

Basic Inflectional Morphology

TIAL content words take different final suffixes, depending on the syntactical usage of the word. The following table shows which usages are possible for each class of word and what the appropriate final suffix is. The table also notes which forms are cited for each kind of stem in the vocabulary. The table also shows that some root forms of verbs can be used as conjunctions, which are cited separately in the vocabulary.

Note that defective verb-stems are always monosyllabic, and that other verb and noun stems are never monosyllabic.

Part-of-Speech Endings
Usage Noun Stems Verb Stems
Univalent Bivalent Defective
Bivalent - -a (cite) -a (cite)
Univalent -e -e (cite) -e -
Nominal -o (cite) -o -o
Vocative -i -i -i
Conjunction 0 0 (cite) 0

There's also a pre-final inversion suffix -az- (-Inv-) which reverses the semantic roles of the subject and object.

Verbal Aspect

Verbs are inflected for valence, using the part-of-speech endings and for aspect and mood, using prefixes. With regard to the latter, there are 2 main classes of verbs: static, representing states and relationships, and dynamic, representing actions and processes. Some aspect prefixes apply only to static verbs and some only to dynamic verbs. The aspect prefixes are summarized in the following table:

Aspect Prefixes
Prefix Tag Name Description Base Acts Type
Static only
    Stative state in progress S S direct
fi- Inch- Inchoative entry to state S -> D direct
di- Term- Terminative exit from state S -> D
Dynamic only
    Aoristic event taken as a whole D D direct
zu- Prg- Progressive event in progress D D
ge- Ret- Retrospective result of action or process D -> S indirect
va- Pro- Prospective readiness for event D -> S
Dynamic or Static
bi- Hab- Habitual multiple occurrences D (S) S indirect

Verbal Mood

A mood prefix precedes any aspect prefix.

Mood Prefixes
Prefix Tag Name Description Base
    Indicative - any aspect
tu- Opt- Optative speaker's wish any aspect


Personal and Possessive Pronouns

Some of the pronouns have possessive forms ending in -o. Deictic pronominals are used for the non-possessive non-reflexive 3rd person pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural Person
Personal Possessive Personal Possessive
1S me 1S.Pos meo 1XP nas 1XP.Pos naso 1st
- 1NP os 1NP.Pos oso
2S te 2S.Pos teo 2P vas 2P.Pos vaso 2nd
3S 3S.Pos leo 3P 3P.Pos loro 3rd
Rfx se Rfx.Pos seo - 3rd, Reflexive

Deictic Pronominals
Deixis Degree Adverb Location or
Pragmatic or
3rd Person
Proximal Prx.Deg ta Prx.Loc ete Prx.D to
Medial Med.Deg sa Med.Loc ese Med.D so
Distal Dis.Deg la Dis.Loc ele Dis.D le

Gendered Correlatives
Class: pron pron det VS1 adv adv det Series Name
Use: Inan. Anim. Poss. Where When Degree Prag.
Tag .Ina .Ani .Pos .Loc .Tmp .Deg .D
Sat - ece can ca co Satisfactive
Que kio ekè kan Interrogative
Rst pe pi pio epe pan pa po Restrictive
IRP yope yopi yopio eyope yopan yopa yopo Indefinite
Exi algo algí algio alge algan ca Existential
Nul ningo ningí ningio ninge ningan Null
Uni toto totí totio tote totan Universal
NUQ nitto nittí nittio nitte nittan Non-Universal

Derivational Morphology

An incorporated noun is appended to the verb, with the part-of-speech suffix for the verb at the end. An -a- is inserted between the verb and the noun.

A derivational noun modifier is appended to the noun, with the part-of-speech suffix for the noun at the end. An -o- is inserted between the noun and the modifier.

There are also the derivational suffixes -jen·o and -mod·o.

Cardinal Numbers

The cardinal number greater than 10 are constructed according to the formula

(Factor-o)  Base(-i  Addend)-o

where the value is (Factor × Base) + Addend. Addend is from 1 to Base - 1 (default 0) and Factor is from 2 to Base - 1 (default 1).

dekiduo "12"
tetrokatipento "405"

Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are constructed by placing the corresponding cardinal number, with its final -o changed to -a, in front of the ordinal verb derivational suffix -ban·e.

unabane "first"
tetrokatipentabane "405th"

Fractional Numbers

Fractional numbers are constructed according to the formula

Numerator do Denominator

page started: 2010.Jun.13 Sun
current date: 2014.Sep.06 Sat
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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