– SIAL –
An International Auxiliary Language

SIAL Morphology

Note: Prefixes are often written with the hyphen included, but suffixes never are.

Lexical Classes

Although related, lexical classes are distinct from syntactical parts of speech. Factors involved in lexical classification include:

Impersonal verbs lack subjects. Those that also lack objects are avalent, but those that don't are monovalent, albeit different from the other kind of monovalent.

Subject × Object impossible optional required
impossible avalent impersonal ???
possible * monovalent divalent defective

Inflectional Affixes

TAM Prefixes

Tense, aspect, and modality (TAM) are partly specified by prefixes, with the aspect marker following any other.

TAM Prefixes
Prefix Tag Description Class Kind
    aoristic Dynamic aspect
stative Static
zu- Prg- progressive Dynamic
va- Pro- prospective
ge- Ret- retrospective
bi- Hab- habitual
le- Opt- optative modality
ja- ? Prs- present tense

Syntactically Relevent Affixes

Terminal Suffixes

The final vowel (if any) of a word specifies syntactically relevent information, both part-of-speech and valence.

Final Vowels
Suffix Tag Part-of-Speech Valence
-a -Div verbal divalent
-e -Mon monovalent
-i -Voc vocative
-o -Nom (all other) nominals
  .Nom (some proper) nominals
  (some) conjunctions avalent
(-u) particle

Other Suffixes

Another syntactically relevent suffix is the passive (or inversion) suffix, which exchanges the role assignments of the subject and object. It's used in both derivation and inflection.

Other Suffixes
Suffix Tag Description Kind
-az -Inv passive (or inverse) argument structure

Other Prefixes

Another syntactically relevent prefix is the causative prefix. It can be applied in two cases:

  1. On impersonal verbs, in which case an active subject is added.
  2. On intransitive verbs, making the original passive subject an object and adds a new active subject. This application is more common.

Other Prefixes
Prefix Tag Name Description
fa- Cau- Causative dynamic-to-static, monovalent-to-divalent or impersonal-to-personal
fi- Inc- Inchoative dynamic-to-static

Pronouns and Determiners

Tag Description Pron. Poss. Tag Description Pron. Possess.
1S 1st person Singular me meo 1P 1st person Plural nas (nas mo)
2S 2nd person Singular te teo 2S 2nd person Plural vas (vas mo)
Rfx Reflexive se seo Rcp Reciprocal seso (seso mo)
U Impersonal u   Prx 3rd person Proximative to (to mo)
  Obv 3rd person Obviative lo (lo mo)
Qu.A Interrogative, Animate ki kio Qu.I Interrogative, Inanimate ke (ke mo)
IndA Indefinite, Animate u-ki u-kio IndI Indefinite, Inanimate u-ke (u-ke mo)
NegA Negative, Animate ni-ki ni-kio NegI Negative, Inanimate ni-ke (ni-ke mo)

Other Pronominals
Verb. Dem. Degree Description Det. Degree Description
ete eto eto ka ? spatial, proximal to ta discursive, proximative
ese eso eso ka ? spatial, medial so sa satisfactive
ele elo elo ka ? spatial, distal lo la discursive, obviative
eke eko   spatial, interrogative ko ka general, interrogative
uke uko spatial, indefinite uko u-ka general, indefinite
nike niko spatial, negative niko ni-ka general, negative


page started: 2010.Jan.24 Sun
last modified: 2010.Mar.07 Sun
content and form originated by qiihoskeh

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